Types of Art

The term art is not new as it has been with the humans for many centuries in one or another form, i.e. from ancient cave scrawling or scribbles and picture to the refined and diverse art of the present day. Art doesn’t exist in any one genre as there are several different genres of art exist where an artist apply different techniques and use different tools to create an artwork. Pastels, oil paints, pen, ink, acrylic paints, pencils, collage and several other tools or mediums are utilized by artists to create an artistic work. These mediums can be applied with the help of brushes, sponges, or even with hands. Artwork may portray or represent still life, floral, landscape, interior, portraiture, figure, abstract and experimental, animal or wildlife art. These are all constitute the different type of genres which can be made using different tools or mediums and can belong to different category of art. However, it is possible that a single artwork may carry the features of more than one art category. Below are given some of the different types of art.

Abstract Art

Abstract art is an art in which the artwork is based on general ideas rather than having any physical existence. In other words, we can say that an abstract art is based on an internal form instead of having any pictorial representation of things. The idea behind abstract art is to bring forth one’s feelings and sensations instead of portraying a real image. Abstract art is a genre of art which emphasize on the use of colors, shapes, or lines than mere pictorial representation. Abstract art was developed in response to classicism and impressionism. This nonobjective and nonrepresentational art was introduced in between 19th and 20th century. Pablo Picasso, Piet Mondrian, Wassily Kandinsky and Jackson Pollock are considered as some of the major names in promoting abstract art.


Impressionism is a genre of art that became popular in the late 19th century in a response to the needs of the French Academie des Beaux-Arts, commonly called The Academie. In impressionism a picture or image is portrayed by thick strokes of unmixed paints (Impasto) to give the impression of reflected light. The thick layer of paints used by the artists is prominent enough which are placed alongside each other and represents some sort of stylized imagery. The main idea behind this genre of art is centered on a fact that how the real light reflect the art content in different time of the day and seasons. To achieve this, majority of the impressionists used to paint outdoors in order to obtain the natural effects of light. Monet, Sisley, Renoir and Pissaro are some renowned impressionists.


Expressionism is a genre of art which deals with the subjective feelings of an artist. This genre of art flourished in the 20th century in a response to the impressionism. The main purpose of expressionism is to depict emotions by means of art. Unlike abstract genre of art in which the emphasis is put on the ideas or feelings other than reality, expressionism depicts real or existing ideas or images but in consent with the artist’s emotive nature. You may find the section of the colors and composition of the work hasty but they portray the artist’s feelings. Some of the popular expressionists are Egon Schiele, Edvard Munch and Marc Chagall.


Romanticism is a genre of art which was originated in Europe somewhere in the 18th century against the Age of Enlightenment. Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement which is describes by an elevated interest in nature, importance given to the individual’s expression of thoughts and feelings, and to reject the norms of classicism. Romanticism is a genre of art which is picturesque and characterize an emotional outlook. Colors and feelings are the two major factors that heightened the artistic contents. Thomas Cole, Henry Fuseli and William Blake are some of the renowned romanticist painters.


It is a genre of art which was developed by George Seurat and his followers in late 19th century in the France. This genre of art based on a technique of painting with tiny dots of pure colors that are arranged in certain patterns which give a distinguished image. Mostly, this sort of art genre centers around the portraiture, however, this technique may used to portray landscapes and abstract artwork as well. Some of the popular pointillist painters are George-Pierre Seurat, Vincent van Gogh and Chuck Close.

Folk Art

Folk art is a genre of art whose origin is yet not clear and it depicts the traditional values or norms of a society or culture. Some of the popular folk art comes from China, Africa, Latin America and North America. Art is equally popular in almost all the cultures. The mediums and materials utilized in folk art include fabric, paper, metal and clay. Folk art can be seen in the form of carved shapes, masks, puppetry, signs and textiles. Naïve, primitive and tribal art are often covered in folk art.

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is a term which is derived from French language which literally means ‘new art’. This genre of art developed in France from where it extended to different European countries such as Belgium, Germany, Italy, etc. It also reached United Kingdom and United States somewhere between late 19th and early 20th century. Art nouveau is an art that focused on curvilinear facets of line which are applied to draw a flowing, especially liquid appearance. Art nouveau developed as a reaction to the Victorian art.


Cubism is a genre of art that developed in France in early 20th century with an inspiration taken from the then non-industrialized cultures like African, Native American and Micronesian. Cubism is an art which focus on the use of geometrical shapes to depict an object or image in artwork. Some of the famous cubist painters whose work got some appreciation are Pablo Picasso, Juan Gris and Georges Braque.


Realism is a genre of art which is based on practical matters or real things rather than imaginary or visionary representations. Realism developed as a reaction to the romanticism in the 19th century. All the representations are based on facts which are not influenced by the emotional aspects of an artist. An artist presents the things prior to any emotions and feelings. Some of the famous painters include John Singer Sargent, Thomas Eakins, Gustave Courbet and James Abbot McNeill Whistler.


Types of Fonts

Technically speaking, a writing font or font is the particular size and style of a set of letters or alphabets that are used in printing, etc Fonts are available in many different sizes and styles. Writing fonts are not a new phenomenon as these are used over years by the calligraphers or professional scribes or penmen in their assigned work. Recently, writing font has become a major part of the computer word processing software. With the development in the printing press, the writing fonts has become not only important part of it but also improved by great deal in styles.

Some of the different font styles are given below:

Script & Handwriting Fonts

Script fonts are the fonts which are devised to present some cursive handwriting or calligraphy. It is not always easy to read them so it is important to take due care while implementing them in your writings. Scripts fonts are widely used in announcements, logos and invitations. Handwriting fonts are the script fonts which are used to make your work appears like a handwritten. It is not necessary that the handwriting fonts are cursive as well. Brush Script and Edwardian Script are the most suitable examples of script fonts, while Freestyle Script and Comic Sans are the apt examples of handwriting fonts.


A serif is basically a short line top or bottom of some styles or in other words detailing on letters of alphabets, for instance, feet on a capital ‘A’. This font style is widely used in books, newspapers, magazines. Times New Roman, Georgia, Rockwell, Courier New and Garamond are some of the formal serif font styles.


Sans-serif is another formal font style that is used commonly in the publications. The only different between the serif font and sans-serif font is that the latter doesn’t use detailing or short line on the letters or alphabets. For instance, the capital letter ‘A’ doesn’t have any feet. Arial, Franklin, Calibri, Comic Sans MS, Century Gothic and Gothic are some of the examples of sans-serif font.


There are so many languages which have separate character fonts than those with letters derived from Latin. Language fonts are solely designed for those languages which have their own separate characters such as Arabic, Chinese, Japanese and Hebrew. Language fonts are specifically the fonts for languages other than English, French and Italian. It is important to mention here that there are certain variations found within the language fonts as well.


Calligraphic fonts are basically the fonts used for decorative writing in formal invitations or announcements. The purpose of designing calligraphic font is to bring a sense of handwritten calligraphy written by professional scribes or calligraphers. The most suitable examples of calligraphic font style include Blackletter and Vivaldi.


Novelty fonts or ornamental fonts are used solely with decorative intentions. These fonts are not used to right paragraphs or long scripts rather the use of these fonts is limited to large titles where the intention is to attract the attention of the people. In novelty fonts, pictures are used to create letters. Often a theme is involved in the selection of novelty fonts like bamboo, western, Christmas and so on. Jokerman and Bamboo are the two most apt examples of novelty fonts.


There are few writing fonts which instead of using letters or alphabets make use of pictorial representations. There are different sort of symbol fonts which are used such as MS Reference series which include arrows, fractions and many other symbols to represent something.

Monospace Fonts

Monospace fonts are the fonts in which letters and symbols are of same width. For instance, the letter ‘I’ in lowercase has the same width as the letter ‘M’ in uppercase. Such fonts were most commonly used in the typewriters and in earlier computer types. Nowadays, the use of monospace fonts can be seen for computer programming, or certain other technical contents. Courier, Courier New and Monaco are some of the examples of monospace fonts.

Above mentioned are some of the most commonly used types of fonts. There are certain others which are used for certain situations and conditions.


Types of Tea

Tea is one of the most popular drinks all over the world. There are many countries where tea is taken with milk and sugar while there are countries where is drunk plain, i.e. without adding milk or sugar. It is yellowish brown in color with a hint of bitter taste.

The tea plants are usually cultivated in the tropical and subtropical climatic conditions. Tea plants are normally evergreen which thrive well in the low altitudes with warm airs. In colder conditions, the growth of the tea plant slows down. Tea plants bear small, white fragrant flowers. There are three seeds in each flower that resemble the hazel nuts. These seeds are first planted in the tea gardens or tea estates and after a year or so these are relocated into fields.

There are many countries where tea is grown but some countries are known for their production of tea including Kenya, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, China, Japan, Indonesia, Turkey, Malawi, Great Britain, Ireland and New Zealand.

The three main types of tea are: Black tea, Green tea and Oolong tea. All the three types of tea used different processing method for their leaves.

Oolong tea

Oolong tea also follows the same procedure as that of black tea but the oxidation time for oolong tea is lesser than black tea. Oolong tea is a tea that falls between black and the green tea. However, it doesn’t mean that you assess the features of this tea in respect to other teas. It has something of its own such as its strong floral aroma with noteworthy peachy taste. There are some varieties of oolong tea that possess vegetal features.

Black Tea

To get the black tea, the leaves are first harvested and then left to wither and oxidize for few hours. After that these are introduced to fire so that the leaves get dry fully.

Green tea

Green tea is another popular type of tea that has so many different varieties. Unlike black or oolong tea, green tea isn’t oxidized rather the harvested leaves are turned and fired without letting them to wither or oxidized. Due to this reason, green tea shows more of vegetal or herbaceous features than black or oolong teas. It is greenish gold in color.

Following are given some of the sub-varieties of tea:

Ceylon (Sri Lanka)

Ceylon tea is produced in Sri Lanka and is available in so many different varieties. This tea is normally used as blend with other varieties. For instance, the commercial blends of Ceylon tea is publicized as ‘Orange Pekoe’ which is a blend of Ceylon and Indian varieties. Ceylon is pretty much like a tea that westerners demand with reddish-brown liquor having lively flavor.

Darjeeling (India)

The most wanted and costly sub-variety of black tea which is cultivated in India. The majority of the varieties of Darjeeling are given the name after the tea estate where these were cultivated.

The tea labeled Darjeeling usually is a blend which 50 percent of real Darjeeling. The blended Darjeeling is normally collected in the rainy season which means that they are not rich in flavors. The fine Darjeeling has liquor which ranges from reddish color to a bright gold. It has an intense flavor with a feel of almond and wildflowers and pleasant aroma.

Lapsang Souchong (China)

It is also produced in China and is rich in smoky aroma and taste. They get this smoky aroma and flavor from the smoking pine needles on which they are fired. This tea is widely used in several Russian Caravan blends.

Nilgiri (India)

Nilgri is another tea which is produced in the India. Nilgri along with two other teas, i.e. Darjeeling and Assam can be used unblended. However, Nilgri has not gained the fame like those of Darjeeling and Assam as self drinkers. Its features are pretty much similar to Ceylon tea and like Ceylon it is used in blends most of the time.

Sikkim (India)

Sikkim is another tea belonged to India. It is cultivated in tea estate located very near to the Darjeeling’s plantation site. It is a blend of Darjeeling’s subtle flavor and soft maltiness of Assam. Even though it is a good tea in its own, but it is not very popular like Darjeeling.

Keemun (China)

Keemun is produced in China is known to make the base of English breakfast blends. It is available in numerous varieties which are used in different blends. Majority of the Keemun varieties has red color liquor with a delicate blend of flavors. It has strong, fruity aroma often with a feel of apple and plum. However, there are few varieties that give you smoky taste.

Yunnan (China)

This tea comes from China that has delicate, peppery and earthy taste. It is not rich in flavor but top quality Yunnan is magnificent. Like Lapsang Souchong, it is also used in Russian Caravan blends.


Types of Potatoes

Potato is a type of vegetable, especially a tuberous vegetable which is a member of family Solanaceae. It grows underground as a root of the plant. Potatoes were first produced around 200 BC in Peru by the local inhabitants known as Inca Indians. However, it is important to mention here that the 99 percent potatoes produced these days are derived from a subspecies produced in south-central Chile. This subspecies of potato was brought to Europe in 16th century by the Spanish explorers and conquerors.

Different Types of Potatoes

Surprisingly, there are over 5,000 known varieties of potatoes from which only few varieties are commonly used for cooking. Some of the most common types of potatoes are given below:

Yellow Potatoes

Yellow potatoes have gained a decent popularity in the United States over the past few years. Yellow potatoes come in flat, round or slightly oval-shape. The flesh of these potatoes is yellow with a yellowish or light brown peel. Yellow potatoes get their yellow color from the presence of a chemical called anthoxanthins which is antioxidant. A small amount of starch is also present in these potatoes. These are commonly used in boiling, mashing, baking and roasting. Yellow Fin, Michigold, Delta Gold, Carola, Nicola are some of the varieties of yellow potatoes where Yukon Gold being the most popular among them.

Round White Potatoes

Round white potatoes are round in shape. It has a flesh of white or creamy color enclosed in a light brown, smooth outer skin. Like yellow potatoes, they also contain medium level of starch. These potatoes are used in all sorts of potato dishes. These are used in boiled, mashed, roasted and fried and keep its texture after cooking. Atlantic, Kennebec and Superior are some of the common varieties of round white potatoes.

Long White Potatoes

Long white potatoes are the potatoes which are low in starch content. There are varieties of long white potatoes which only have 25 percent of starch (carbohydrates and mineral salts) content in them and the rest 75 percent is water. These potatoes have white to light white to pale brown outer skin. These potatoes are easy to digest and even assist intestinal functions. These are equally good for both diabetics and obese. One can eat them boiled, mashed, fried, and baked. They also keep their shape after cooking. The other names given to these potatoes are white rose and California long whites.

Red Potatoes

Red potatoes as the name suggests have rosy red or reddish-brown outer skin in which enclosed a white colored flesh. The flesh can even be yellow or red in few varieties. These potatoes are also low in starch content. These are also consumed in boiled, mashed, roasted, and grilled form. Red potatoes are also used in salads. Red Norland, Red LaSoda and Red Pontiac are some of the varieties of red potatoes.


Russet potatoes are potatoes which are known for their brown net-like skin that surrounds the white flesh. Russet potatoes have oval shape with lots of shallow eyes. Once cooked, these potatoes become soft, fluffy or flossy. Russet potatoes are widely preferred for making French fries. However, these are also good for baking, mashing, roasting, frying etc. Russet potatoes grow to the size of 10-15 cm.


Fingerling potatoes are the potatoes which are relatively smaller than other varieties of potatoes and can reach to the size of 7 cm. These are called fingerling because of their elongated shape along with bumps which make them look like fingers. The flesh of these potatoes is yellow in color surrounded by a thin outer skin. It is not necessary to peel the skin off as it can be cooked. A large range of varieties of fingerling potatoes are known which are creamy-white to purple. Purple Peruvian, Russian Banana, Ruby Crescent and long white fingerlings are some of the common varieties of fingerlings.

Purple and Blue Potatoes

Purple potatoes and blue potatoes are same. They normally have a blue or purple skin and flesh which make them distinguished from other varieties of the potatoes. These potatoes get their blue or purple color from the blue pigmented antioxidant, anthoxyanin which is found in them. These potatoes are produced in the South America. These are used in salads as well as in baked, roasted, fried and boiled form. All Blue, Purple Peruvian and Purple Viking are some of the common varieties of purple and blue potatoes.

At first, potatoes were considered as the poisonous crop by the ancient Europeans. Later, it was taken as a healthy vegetable which has now become the fourth largest grown crop in the world. Potatoes contain carbohydrates, vitamins and certain essential mineral that are good for human body such as high level of potassium, fiber, vitamin C and vitamin B6.


Types of Ships

Galley:For many people, a ship is anything that is larger than a rowboat. However, in the eyes of sailors and pirates a ship in real sense is a term used for the vessels that fulfills certain criterions.

The ships are classified on the basis of the formation and arrange of the rigging (ropes and chains used to support and work the sails and masts of a ship). In order to qualify as a ship, the vessel should be square-rigged and must possess three masts with minimum of three stages of sails – course, topsail and t’gallant. Anything that doesn’t fulfill these criterions is considered as boat which is identified by its class names such as sloop, brig, xebec etc.

It is not simple to make a list of different types of ships under the same definition as the age of sail is based on four to five centuries including the Golden age of Piracy and the definition of different classes of the ships changed over a period of time. Even some classes of ships become extinct and new classes have taken the place of those old ones. Following are given some of the different types of ships that will help you understand the definition of different types of ships.

Schooner: It is relatively a small class of ships low on arms, i.e. carried only 6 guns. This class of ship used for about 300 years. It is found in both two mast and three mast varieties. Irrespective of the masts, schooners can be fore and/or aft rigged. Schooners are widely used in United States.

Sloop: Sloop is a class of ships with shallow draft which were used by pirates. It was equipped with small number of guns, i.e. 20 guns on one gun deck. Sloops were extremely fast ships which made them apt for the chases or pursuit.

Corvette: These are also referred to as Sloop of War. These were small and lightweight ships carrying a small amount of guns, to say 10 guns per ship. However, there were some Corvette types that were equipped with more guns. These were incredibly fast ships. It is yet not clear if pirates used them or not but it is obvious that these ships were given to privateers for being so fast.

Brig (and Brigantine): These ships were called brig because of the fact that these were used by the pirates or brigands. These were small but fast ships. In initial years, the term brigantine was used for any two-masted vessel that was sailed or rowed. Afterwards, the definition for the brig was refined and the term was restricted for certain type of ships. A brig was a square-rigged on its foremast and upper mainmast while the main sheet was rigged fore and aft on a gaff boom. A brig could carry 10 guns.

Barque (or Bark): The term barque is used for a ship with three or more masts. This term has been used in nautical terminology for quite along time. The term has changed its meaning over a period of time. During the 1400s, 1500s and 1600s, the term barque was used for the smaller merchant vessels. It was in 1700 when the Royal Navy used this term for a vessel that was comparatively different from its old ancestors. It was in 1800 when this term was associated with the ship having three or more masts with a certain rigging arrangement, i.e. square-rigged on fore and upper mainmasts and fore and aft on mizzen (rear mast).

Galleon: It was a ship built by the Spanish people and was commonly used between the 15th and 17th century by Spanish. Galleons served both as merchant ships and warships for many centuries. These are large, heavy ships which having a broad beam and are usually described by high fore and aft multi-deck castles. Apart from these high structures (castles), there were some large fo’c’sles as well which majorly affects the maneuvering abilities of the galleons. To overcome this problem, Spanish modified the design of these fo’c’sles in order to enhance the operating abilities of the galleons. However, they didn’t change the high castles at all.

Fluyt: It is a class of ships which is developed and used by the Dutch. The most distinguishing feature of this ship is its pear-shaped hull cross section which is narrower at the main deck but broadened out incredibly down to the waterline. It is said that at that time the taxes on the merchant ships were imposed on the basis of the area covered by the main deck and this pear shaped design helped reducing the main deck area while increasing the cargo area at the same time. Perhaps, keeping this fact in mind, the design of this ship was finalized. Fluyt were used in the European waters by the Dutch where Dutch East India Company was involved in trading activities.

Galley: Galley is a long flat ship with sails and used by ancient Greeks and Romans in wars. It is also the ship that was popular among the pirates of Mediterranean. Galley based on oars for propulsion. Galleys are more appreciated by the pirates of Mediterranean because of its ability to move faster in the smooth water conditions. It shows some good maneuvering features than the sailing ships as well. Galleys are not suitable for the rough waters such as Atlantic or English Channel. Similarly, Caribbean is also not suitable for the galleys, though they can still manage there but not that effective.

Merchantman: It is another class of ships that was used by pirates. We can found a lot description of these ships. These ships were in fact designed to carry massive cargos. Some varieties of merchantman were equipped with cannons whilst there were varieties without even a single weapon.

Breast Cancer

Types of Breast Cancer

Not all the tumors occur in the breasts are malignant. Majority of the tumors that occur in the breasts are non-malignant and appear due to the fibrocystic formations within the breasts. However, there are tumors which are malignant and have the tendency to spread to other organs of the body if left untreated. Following are given some of the different types of breast cancers.

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ or DICU

This occurs in the cell walls of ducts in breasts. It is not malignant neither does it spread to other parts of the body. Breast removal surgery or mastectomy is used to remove this tumor from the breast. There are almost 100 percent chances that this tumor is cured. Mammographies are used to detect these tumors.

Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma or IDC

These types of tumors are considered as intrusive tumors which develop in the milk ducts in the breasts and extend to the adipose tissues of breasts and eventually to the other organs of the body of women. This is a most common type of breast cancer affecting over 80 percent of women all across the world.

Lobular Carcinoma in Situ or LCIS

This tumor develops in the mammary glands or breast lobes in the breast. It is not considered as malignant form of cancer but it can become malignant if left untreated. In its initial stage it is non-malignant and curable. It is known to be the most frequent type of premenopausal breast cancer and is still a mystery for the doctors who are yet not able to find any clues of its development before the end of the menstrual cycle. Once it is detected, doctors perform several tests in order to supervise its growth and women are asked to go through a mammography screening on yearly basis.

Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma or ILC

It is a kind of intrusive tumor which is formed in the mammary glands and extends to the other parts and tissues of the body. This tumor accounts for 10 percent to 15 percent of all the breast cancer cases. The diagnosis of this tumor is relatively tough as it is not detected easily on mammograms.

Inflammatory Carcinoma or IC

The cases of this type of tumor are very rare as it accounts for only 1 percent of the total breast cancer cases all over the world. This inflammatory type is known as an aggressive type which one develops grows quickly. The appearance of bluish breast skin with high temperature is the common symptoms of this tumor. Apart from this, bumps and wrinkles also appear on the breast of the women.

Paget’s disease of the Nipple

Paget’s disease of the nipple is another rare form of breast cancer wherein the cancerous cells develops in or around the nipple of the women. Initially, these cells attack the ducts of the nipple (milk-carrying tubes) and later extend to the nipple and areola (dark skin surrounding the nipple). Scaly, reddish nipples with irritation and itchiness are common symptoms.

The report from the National Cancer Institute states that this disease is responsible for 5 percent of the total breast cancer cases in the United States. It is vital to have a good knowledge of the symptoms of this disease because about 97 percent of the patients with Paget’s disease either have DCIS or intrusive cancer in breast. Any slight changes in the appearance of the nipple and areola may suggest the presence of cancer cells.

Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

Being rare in nature, it accounts for only 1 percent of the total breast cancer cases. The term Phyllodes is derived from a Greek language meaning ‘leaflike’. This suggests that the cancer cells of this disease develop in a leaflike structure. Phylloides tumor and Cystosarcoma phylloides are other name used for this tumor. These are not invasive but grow rapidly in the breast.

Recurrent and Metastatic Breast Cancer

Any woman who had a breast cancer in the past, there is an ample chance of recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer remain with her. Perhaps you are reading this article because you are conscious about this fact, or it may has happened to you or you are just for the sake of knowledge.

This is not at all discouraging to live with a probability of recurrence or metastatic breast cancer. There are large numbers of women all across the world living their lives, rather productive lives with this disease. You have to live no matter if it comes back or not. You might have not caught this disease again after your first treatment. Recurrent and metastatic breast cancer is just a probability of disease. You can still live a life with all its colors and flares.

Male Breast Cancer

In the end, let us talk about another uncommon disease, i.e. the breast cancer in men. It is extremely rare in men as less than 1 percent of breast cancers develop in men. According to the statistics of 2005, about 211,400 women were diagnosed with breast cancer, while the numbers in men are 1,690.

You may be astounding over the point that men don’t have breast then how come they have breast cancer. In reality, girls and boys, men and women all have breast tissues. Certain hormonal changes cause the breast tissues to grow, but this is not the case with men or boys. However, there are instances where you have seen boys or men with relatively developed breasts. It is all about hormonal changes which are more active in women than men.

It is always handy to have a thorough knowledge about the different types of cancers or other fatal diseases. This will help you recognizing the symptoms much earlier which make things easier for you when it comes to treatment. Mostly, people are not aware of the symptoms and don’t give attention to minor symptoms which become tumors in the future and make their lives miserable. So, it is better to gather some important information before its too late.


Types of Rocks

Rocks are the hard solid masses that form the part of the surface of earth or other planets. Rocks are of different types. Some of the different types of rocks are given below.

Igneous Type of Rocks

Cooling of magma is took place by exothermic process. While the process is underway, a phase comes when liquid starts converting into solid state which is having a disposition of crystalline. This is called ‘Igneous Rocks’. The rock which is formed on the surface of earth as a result of cold atmosphere is usually igneous rocks. When the magma reaches the surface of the earth and results in a rock formation, the rock is called ‘basalt’, while the magma which is not able to reach the surface of the earth is called ‘gabbro’. Although, both basalt and gabbro have the same composition, they both differ in textures. Intermediate magma results into andesite and diorite and Felsic magma results into granite and rhyolite. Following are given the classification of igneous rocks based on composition:

  • Felsic: These comprise of potash feldspar, quartz, muscovite or biotite, amphibole.
  • Intermediate: These include plagioclase, amphibole, muscovite or biotite, quartz.
  • Mafic: These include olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase.
  • Ultramafic: These include olivine and pyroxene.

Following is given the classification of igneous rocks based on texture:

  • aphanitic or fine grain
  • intermediate
  • phaneritic or coarse grain
  • glassy
  • frothy

Sedimentary Kinds of Rocks

A large part of the surface of the earth is composed of igneous rocks. The most of part of the crust of these rocks is covered by a thin layer of loose sediments. Over the time, these small pieces of sediments become compressed and hard. Such types of rocks are called sedimentary or secondary rocks. These rocks are divided into:

  • Clastic: These are formed by the compaction and cementation of the small accumulated pieces of broken rocks. These pieces undergo the lithification process and become basic sedimentary rocks.
  • Chemical: These are come into existence as a result of water vaporization leaving behind the minerals on the surface. Large deposits of salt and gypsum are created as a result of repetitive floods and evaporation.
  • Organic: Calcium is found in the bones, teeth and shells of the animals. Gradually, these sources collected on the seabed and give rise to a sedimentary rock because of organic processes such as limestone, coal, peat, oil etc.

Metamorphic Types of Rocks

The term metamorphic is a combination of two words, i.e. ‘meta’ meaning ‘change’ and ‘morph’ meaning ‘form’. Metamorphic rock can be any rock that fulfills the condition of being encircled by an environment that makes the minerals inside the rock wobbly and in non-equilibrium state. This normally happen when the rock is buried and the pressure and temperature begins to increase immensely. This high pressure and temperature cause some changes to happen in the minerals as a result of which equilibrium is obtained. Common examples include slate, gneiss, schist and marble.

The non-foliated metamorphic rocks are the rocks which are formed as a result of litho-static pressure and heat. These elements are more common under the surface of earth. Due to these factors, the rocks become recrystallized. Following are given different examples of these rocks:

  • Quartzite: It is drawn from sandstone and pretty much appear like sandstone. It is hard and bursts in via quartz grains.
  • Hornfels: It is drawn from shale and is hard and solid.

  • Marble: It is made up of calcium and carbonate and is drawn from limestone. It is not as hard as quartzite and hornfels. Marble has several uses.

Foliated rocks are the rocks which are formed as result of directed pressure and heat. In these rocks, different proportion of akin elements combines and gives rise to minerals operating under variable pressure and heat conditions. Greenschist facies, actinolite facies and staurolite facies are some of the common examples. Following are given some examples of foliated metamorphic rocks:

  • Slate: It is hard and durable with microscopic grains. It is widely used in roofs, pool table tops and chalkboards.
  • Phyllite: It gets its shine through mica and it can be half muscovite or graphite or chlorite.
  • Schist: It is also known as schistosity which is formed through the foliation of micaceous minerals. It is variable in its primary features and textures.
  • Gneiss: It is considered as high grade metamorphic rock with a color stripping of light and dark minerals.
  • Migmatite: It is formed due to the slight melting and recrystallization of felsic minerals.

Types of Pizza

Pizza is basically an Italian dish consisting of a flat, round, oven baked bread base with topping of vegetables, cheese, tomatoes, meat etc. The ingredients of toppings can be variable depending on the taste and region of the world. Pizzas are equally popular among all the age groups. It is available in so many different combinations. Different types of pizzas are based on different pizza crusts, different pizza sauces and a large variety of toppings.

Following are given some of the popular types of pizza which are in much demand and eaten all over the world.

Brick Oven Pizza: These are the pizzas which are baked in the wood fire brick oven and give pizzas a unique flavor. Neapolitan style pizzas are normally baked in the brick ovens. The pizzas baked in these ovens are small in size with only ten inch in diameter. Pizzas are thin with lesser amount of toppings.

Chicago Style Pizza: As this pizza was first made in Chicago, it is given the name Chicago style pizza. This pizza is a deep dish pizza with buttery crust along with a lot of tomato sauce and rich cheese. There are few varieties with stuffed crusts as well.

Deep Dish Pizza: This pizza was also made for the first time in Chicago somewhere around 1943. It has a thick bread crust which is about an inch deep or even more.

French Bread Pizza: In this type of pizza, the French bread is cut half and then covered with pizza toppings instead of adding a dough pizza crust.

Greek Pizza: Greek pizza is known for its herby base. It includes tasteful toppings of onion, mushrooms, broccoli, tomatoes, mozzarella, bell peppers, basil, manouri cheese, olives and olive oil.

Grilled Pizza: This type of pizzas is cooked on grills. With grilled pizzas, the dough is baked first and then turned upside down. Once the dough is baked, toppings are added to it and again baked in the closed grill.

Italian Pizza: Italian pizza is an oven baked pizza which is flat circular bread topped with tomato sauce and mozzarella. However, other toppings can also be used.

New York Style Pizza: It is a pizza which is popular for thin, wide slices. The most classical toppings are mozzarella and tomato. Light sauce is used on these pizzas. High gluten flour is used to make thin, crispy hand tossed crust. The pizza’s slices are folded and consumed. This pizza is bigger than other pizzas because these are baked in coal burning oven rather then brick oven and also take longer to cook than brick ovens.

Pan Pizza: Pan Pizzas are the pizzas which have thick crust than other pizzas and available in several different toppings combinations.

Sicilian Pizza: This pizza was first made in Palermo, Sicily and given the name Sicilian pizza. It is also a thick crust pizza. The most important ingredients used in this pizza are pecorino cheese and anchovies. Sicilian pizza is made square in America having a thick crust.

Stuffed Crust Pizza: It is a fairly new concept in which the outer rim of the pizza crust is stuffed with cheese.

Thick Crust Pizza: Thick crust pizza is the pizza in which the dough is kept for an extended time in the oven to take a bread-like crust form.

Thin Crust Pizza: A thin crust pizza is a pizza which may or may not contain yeast. It usually has a crispy and crunchy crust.

Vegetarian Pizza: Most of the recipes of pizzas make use of lot of vegetables. A large range of vegetarian pizza toppings are there from which one can choose from.

White Pizza: White pizzas are perhaps the pizzas in which tomato sauce is not used altogether. White pizzas usually rely on the toppings of cheese, garlic, fresh basil and olive oil.


Types of Autism

Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a medical condition which is defined as a developmental disability or disturbance affecting the people in childhood and may persist in their adulthood as well. The treatment of autism largely depends upon the intensity of the symptoms. The sooner the autism symptoms are diagnosed greater will be the chances to cure this disorder. The effectiveness of treatment based on the diagnosis of the disorder. Autism is not a limited term. There are so many different forms of autism which affect the people in different ways. In this article, we have tried to present some of the different known types of autism along with the brief description of the nature and symptoms of each type.

What are the Different Types of Autism

It is important to note that autism occur in an early age of infancy or childhood, to say before three years of age. Medical history shows that autism is more common in males than in females. Medical researchers have explained five different types of autism in children which can take any of the form on adults as well. All these types are studied under Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Let us have a look at these five different types of autism:

Kanner’s Syndrome/Classic Autistic Disorder

This is the most common and the most severe type of autism in the children. The most prominent symptom of this disorder is the delayed speech development; however, there are many other symptoms associated with this syndrome as well. For instance, the children with this sort of autism normally like to stay in their own world, are very conservative, and are involved in repetitive movements. The children with this type of autism usually have a poor response against the loud and clatter noises. They are unable to understand jokes, emotions and innuendos. Classic Autistic Disorder is common in the children under three years of age.

Asperger’s Syndrome

Unlike classic autistic disorder, this disorder is less severe and usually develops in children at young age and continues into the adult age. This sort of autism is often called high functioning autism. In Asperger’s syndrome, the social interaction and communication of children is much better than the children with classic autistic disorder; however the level of social interaction and communication is limited. They do well in intelligence tests and may score an average or even above average. They do well in their interested subjects whatever the subject may be. They learn each and everything about it. Here, the actual problem arises, this interest in subject make them confined in their interaction and communication and they only show good interaction and communication level with the people sharing the same interest otherwise they have difficulty in interaction with other people. They also have difficulty understanding jokes and sarcasm.

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

Childhood disintegrative disorder is another type of autism which bears the same symptoms as we have mentioned above. Children with this sort of autism show the normal development (i.e. communication, language, motor skills and so on) up to the age of three. But once they have passed their third year of age, this disorder begins to develop in them. A loss of vocabulary, worsening of motor and social skills, declining IQ level all are the major symptoms of this disorder. The worsening of the motor and social skills is such to an extent where these children loss control over bladder. In severe cases of this disorder, seizure can also occur in an individual. Like many other types of autism, this type is also more common in males than in females. Treatments are there to control the development of the disease; however this is not completely curable.

Rett’s Disorder

This is a rare type of autism and only affects the females. Like the childhood disintegrative disorder, girls with Rett’s disorder show a good development up to the age of 6 months to 18 months. After that, a serious decline is seen in them where they begin to loose all their skills which they had learnt and developed by now. For example, they are unable to dress on their own or they are unable to take bath themselves. It is thought that the major cause of this disorder is the alteration in the order of a single gene. The symptoms shown by the girls with Rett’s disorder may by similar to many other types of autism such as like child autism, they may develop the habit of repetitive movements. Aggression and seizure are other symptoms. Here it is important to note that if the occurrence of the seizures is frequent, this could be severe. Other common symptoms involve difficulty in having a good sleep and irritability. Rett’s disorder is pretty much treatable and a proper treatment plan is required to treat the symptoms of this disorder.

Pervasive Developmental Disorder (Not Otherwise Specified) (PDD-NOS)

A child is said to have a pervasive developmental disorder when he has symptoms almost similar to that to autism spectrum disorder with slight deviations in the symptoms. Let us explain this fact with the help of example. Let us suppose a child has symptoms of lack of eye contact and lack of ability to express his emotions but have good language and comprehension skills. Pervasive developmental disorder is a mild form of autism in which it can be possible to have one symptom more fatal than the other. With pervasive developmental disorder, it is always difficult to observe the nature of the symptoms due to which diagnosis and treatment process also become difficult.

Treating the Different Types of Autism

Now we have already discussed some of the different types of autism. It is time to talk about the treatment of these different types. The first thing you need to bear in mind is the intensity of the symptoms of autism. Treatment is largely based on the nature of the symptoms. Mild symptoms require different treatment plan while severe symptoms require to be treated differently. Also, it is worth mentioning here that not all the autism type can be treated completely. The efforts are made to lessen the severity of symptoms in order to make an individual less dependent and able to perform his own tasks. To achieve this, many therapies are used to help the people with autism to enhance their language, communication, motor and social skills.

It is always important to consult your child specialist as soon as you notice any symptoms of autism in your child. After examining your child, child specialist may refer you to any psychiatrist for further help. Remember, we have mentioned time and again that the sooner the autism symptoms are diagnosed better is the chances to treat the symptoms of autism. Like children, there are many therapies which are there to treat the adult patient with autism.


Types of Bonds

A bond is in fact a certificate of debt (usually interest-bearing or discounted), issued by a government or corporation in order to raise money. The issuer is required to pay a fixed sum annually until maturity and then a fixed sum to repay the principal. There are numerous amount of features attached with bonds, e.g. the way interest is paid, issuing market, currency in which they are payable, legal status and protective features. Bonds are not necessarily issued by government only as there are many other organizations and financial institutes which are authorized to issue bonds such as corporations, special purpose trusts, and non-profit organizations.

Bonds are of different types and nature. Following are given some of the different types of bonds.

Asset-Backed Securities

These are securities which are based on the communal funds (pools) of principal assets. The nature of these assets should be private and illiquid. In order to make these assets available for investment to a broader range of investors, securitization is occurred. Similarly, the pooling of assets comes about to make certain that the securitization is large enough to be economical and to branch out the features of the principal assets.

Government Bonds

  • Supranational Agencies

These are the agencies which impose assessments or fees against its member governments. Eventually, the support and the taxation power of the primary national governments enable these agencies to make payments on their debts. The most obvious example of such agency is that of a World Bank.

  • National Governments

The national governments or central governments are the governments which have the power to print new money with a view to pay off their debts. It is one major factor why most of the investors find the central governments of the modern industrial countries ‘risk-free’ from default viewpoint.

  • Quasi-Government Issuers

There are several financial institutes that issue bonds on behalf of the government. These financial institutes are either backed by revenues of the specific institution or supported by some government sponsor. For instance, in Canada, Federal government agencies and Crown corporations have the ability to issue bonds. In Canada, The Federal Business Development Bank (FBDB) and The Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) issue bonds which are guaranteed by the Federal government of Canada. Similarly, Ontario Hydro and Hydro Quebec, the two provincial crown corporations are supported by the provincial governments of Ontario and Quebec.

  • Provincial or State Governments

On the basis of constitutional ability, provincial or state governments can also issue debts. For instance, Ontario, a Canadian province takes on loan more than several small countries. Majority of the investors take these state or provincial governments as strong credits because of their authority to impose income or sales taxes to back their debt payments. However, these governments are not considered as strong as national governments because of their inability to control monetary policy.

  • Municipal and Regional Governments

The bonds issued by cities, towns, counties or regional municipalities are often backed by property taxes. Even school boards have the ability to issue bonds on the basis property tax charge by them for education.

Convertible Bonds

It is a bond type that allows the holder to convert or exchange into the equal amount of the bond or common shares of the issuer at some fixed ratio while a certain period of time. The conversion feature of these bonds gives them a feature of fixed income securities and also equity securities.

High Yield or “Junk” Bonds

High yield or junk bonds are the bonds which are issued by government or organizations with a higher credit risk. What we mean by higher credit risk is that it has higher return rates than any of the other bond with better credit quality. The credit ratings of high yield bonds are known to be of speculative grade or below investment grade which means that the chances of default with high yield bonds are always higher than other sort of bonds. Financial experts are of the view that portfolios (collection of investments) of high yield bonds have high returns than other kind of bonds, indicating that the higher returns pay back more than for the risk attached with them.

Inflation-Linked Bonds

A bond that gives protection against inflation is known as inflation-linked bond. Majority of the inflation-linked bonds are principal indexed such as the Canadian “Real Return Bond “(RRB), the British “Inflation-linked Gilt” (ILG) and the new U.S. Treasury “inflation-protected security” (IPS). With a passage of time, the principal amount is increased with the fluctuation in inflation. In several countries, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) or its alternative is a key for inflation proxy. When the principal amount increases with change in inflation, the interest is then imposed on that increased amount. As a result of this, the interest payment begins to increase with time. Eventually, the principal amount is paid back at maturity against the inflated amount.

U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS)

U.S capital market had dawned with a new age beginning on Wednesday, January 29, 1997, as the United States Treasury introduced its very first issue of inflation-linked bond, 3.375% of 2007. Its principal is increased in this bond by bringing changes in the Consumer Price Index (CPI). In this the interest payment is calculated on the basis of inflated principal, which is eventually repaid at its maturity. Through this the investor is given the ability to protect against inflation while at the same time providing certain real return over an investment horizon. The auction went extremely well despite critics and uncertainly over the great inflation debate with interest 5 times the size of the $7.0 billion issue. To add to this the real yield of the tip reached more than 3.5% in the when issue trading before the auction but fell dramatically to 3.3% in the aftermarket trading.

Extendible & Retractable Bonds

The extendible and retractable bonds are the bonds with more than one maturity date. Extendable bonds allow the holder to extend present maturity date to a new longer maturity date. While with retractable bonds, the holder is able to promote the yield of principal to an earlier date than the original date. These types of bonds help the investor to take full advantage of the interest rates by modifying the terms of their portfolio. The most characteristic feature of these bonds lies in their basic terms. For instance, if the interest rate is on higher side, these bonds behave as if bonds with shorter terms. And if on the other hand interest rate is falling, these bonds behave like bonds with longer terms.

Mortgage-Backed Securities

The securities which are dependent upon a pool of underlying mortgages are known are mortgage-backed securities (MBS). These mortgages on which these securities based are usually supported by government agencies for payment of timely payment of principal. The study of MBS generally focuses on the disposition of the underlying payment stream, especially the prepayment of the principal before the maturity ends.

Foreign Currency Bonds

An issuer issues foreign currency bond in other currency than its national currency so as to attract the buyers. These Foreign Currency bonds are so issued as in foreign currencies to make them more attractive to buyers and at the same time take advantage of international interest rates differentials. These bonds can be swapped easily en at the same time converted in the swap market in to the home currency of the issuer. In United States Market Bonds issued by foreign issuers in U.S dollars are known as Yankee bonds. Bonds issued in British pounds in British bond market are referred to as Bulldogs.

Zero Coupon or “Strip” Bonds

Zero coupon or strip bonds are basically fixed income securities which are developed from the cash flows that constitute a normal bond. These are the bonds issued at a price lower than its face value where the face value is paid back at the end of maturity. These are also classed discount bond or deep discount bond.