Category Archives: Conditions & Diseases


Types of Diabetes

Diabetes is a common medical condition that affects the people throughout the world. Statistics shows that in United Kingdom alone, 2.8 million people have diabetes. Apart from these 2.8 million, there are 850,000 people who are not aware of the fact that they have diabetes.

Diabetes is a medical condition wherein the amount of sugar or glucose in blood exceeds the normal level because of several reasons. Usually pancreas stops producing any insulin or doesn’t produce the required amount of insulin which is essential to keep the blood level maintained in the body. Even sometimes, insulin is produced by pancreas but this is ineffective. This condition is called insulin resistance.

Diabetes is of different types. There are three major types of diabetes given below:

Type 1

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t release sufficient amount of insulin required to keep the blood sugar level under control. This chronic disease is known to be an autoimmune disease wherein the body’s immune system acts against any of the body part. In this case, immune system acts against the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and kill them, eventually results in the reduction or stopping of the insulin. Insulin helps the sugar or glucose to enter the blood. In United States, about 5-10% of diabetic patients have Type 1. Mostly, type diabetes develops in children and young adults; however, this can occur at any time even in older age.

Some of the common symptoms of type 1 diabetes are weight loss, increased hunger, thirst and urination.

Type 2

It is the most common type of diabetes and estimates show that over 90-95% of people are suffering from Type 2 diabetes. In United States alone, 3.6 million people are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 is often related with obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, aging, high-fat diets, ethnicity, physical inactivity, and family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes and even with older age. However, the most common reason can be obesity as 80% percent of the diagnosed patients are overweight.

In Type 2, the production of insulin by pancreas is enough, but the body doesn’t able to utilize this insulin to control the blood sugar levels for some ambiguous reasons. This phenomenon is medically referred to as insulin resistance. Gradually, the insulin level in blood decreases and the sugar level begin to rise in blood.

As compared to Type 1, Type 2 is considered more complicated. If diagnosed in its early stages, it can be fairly easy to treat it because at early stages insulin is still produced which decreases as the disease grow.


It is also referred to as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) which is mainly associated with the pregnant women as it occurs only when a woman is pregnant. This is a complex medical condition that often causes high birth weights, low blood sugar and jaundice.

Certainly, it is a disease that affects the women and that too at time when they are pregnant. Developing gestational diabetes increases the risks for a woman to develop Type 2 diabetes later in her life. Normally, 3 to 10% percent of pregnant women get affect by this disease. It is thought that several hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy cause resistance to insulin.

The women with this sort of diabetes normally have babies larger with low blood sugar, and jaundice. However, it is pretty much curable disease. Women need to control their blood glucose levels to minimize the potential risks associated with this diabetes type.

It has seen that the women whose diet is rich in fiber content have good defense against this diabetes. You can lessen the risk of getting this diabetes by adding 10 grams of dietary fiber in your regular diet.

MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of Youth)

Apart from above mention three major types, this is relatively rare type of diabetes which is usually caused by some sort of genetic defects in beta cell function. It normally develops in people less than 25 years of age.

Drug-Induced Diabetes

It is another rare type of diabetes which is often associated with some drugs or chemicals such as nicotinic acid (often used for lowering the high triglycerides and raise the levels of HDL cholesterol), gluco-corticoids (prednisone), thyroid hormone, thiazides (drugs used to control blood pressure), beta-adrenergic agonists (uses for asthma), and dilantin (used for anti-seizure treatment).

Breast Cancer

Types of Breast Cancer

Not all the tumors occur in the breasts are malignant. Majority of the tumors that occur in the breasts are non-malignant and appear due to the fibrocystic formations within the breasts. However, there are tumors which are malignant and have the tendency to spread to other organs of the body if left untreated. Following are given some of the different types of breast cancers.

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ or DICU

This occurs in the cell walls of ducts in breasts. It is not malignant neither does it spread to other parts of the body. Breast removal surgery or mastectomy is used to remove this tumor from the breast. There are almost 100 percent chances that this tumor is cured. Mammographies are used to detect these tumors.

Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma or IDC

These types of tumors are considered as intrusive tumors which develop in the milk ducts in the breasts and extend to the adipose tissues of breasts and eventually to the other organs of the body of women. This is a most common type of breast cancer affecting over 80 percent of women all across the world.

Lobular Carcinoma in Situ or LCIS

This tumor develops in the mammary glands or breast lobes in the breast. It is not considered as malignant form of cancer but it can become malignant if left untreated. In its initial stage it is non-malignant and curable. It is known to be the most frequent type of premenopausal breast cancer and is still a mystery for the doctors who are yet not able to find any clues of its development before the end of the menstrual cycle. Once it is detected, doctors perform several tests in order to supervise its growth and women are asked to go through a mammography screening on yearly basis.

Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma or ILC

It is a kind of intrusive tumor which is formed in the mammary glands and extends to the other parts and tissues of the body. This tumor accounts for 10 percent to 15 percent of all the breast cancer cases. The diagnosis of this tumor is relatively tough as it is not detected easily on mammograms.

Inflammatory Carcinoma or IC

The cases of this type of tumor are very rare as it accounts for only 1 percent of the total breast cancer cases all over the world. This inflammatory type is known as an aggressive type which one develops grows quickly. The appearance of bluish breast skin with high temperature is the common symptoms of this tumor. Apart from this, bumps and wrinkles also appear on the breast of the women.

Paget’s disease of the Nipple

Paget’s disease of the nipple is another rare form of breast cancer wherein the cancerous cells develops in or around the nipple of the women. Initially, these cells attack the ducts of the nipple (milk-carrying tubes) and later extend to the nipple and areola (dark skin surrounding the nipple). Scaly, reddish nipples with irritation and itchiness are common symptoms.

The report from the National Cancer Institute states that this disease is responsible for 5 percent of the total breast cancer cases in the United States. It is vital to have a good knowledge of the symptoms of this disease because about 97 percent of the patients with Paget’s disease either have DCIS or intrusive cancer in breast. Any slight changes in the appearance of the nipple and areola may suggest the presence of cancer cells.

Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

Being rare in nature, it accounts for only 1 percent of the total breast cancer cases. The term Phyllodes is derived from a Greek language meaning ‘leaflike’. This suggests that the cancer cells of this disease develop in a leaflike structure. Phylloides tumor and Cystosarcoma phylloides are other name used for this tumor. These are not invasive but grow rapidly in the breast.

Recurrent and Metastatic Breast Cancer

Any woman who had a breast cancer in the past, there is an ample chance of recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer remain with her. Perhaps you are reading this article because you are conscious about this fact, or it may has happened to you or you are just for the sake of knowledge.

This is not at all discouraging to live with a probability of recurrence or metastatic breast cancer. There are large numbers of women all across the world living their lives, rather productive lives with this disease. You have to live no matter if it comes back or not. You might have not caught this disease again after your first treatment. Recurrent and metastatic breast cancer is just a probability of disease. You can still live a life with all its colors and flares.

Male Breast Cancer

In the end, let us talk about another uncommon disease, i.e. the breast cancer in men. It is extremely rare in men as less than 1 percent of breast cancers develop in men. According to the statistics of 2005, about 211,400 women were diagnosed with breast cancer, while the numbers in men are 1,690.

You may be astounding over the point that men don’t have breast then how come they have breast cancer. In reality, girls and boys, men and women all have breast tissues. Certain hormonal changes cause the breast tissues to grow, but this is not the case with men or boys. However, there are instances where you have seen boys or men with relatively developed breasts. It is all about hormonal changes which are more active in women than men.

It is always handy to have a thorough knowledge about the different types of cancers or other fatal diseases. This will help you recognizing the symptoms much earlier which make things easier for you when it comes to treatment. Mostly, people are not aware of the symptoms and don’t give attention to minor symptoms which become tumors in the future and make their lives miserable. So, it is better to gather some important information before its too late.


Types of Bacteria

A bacterium (plural: bacteria) is a microscopic organism which known to be the simplest and smallest form of life. A bacterium is a single celled organism which cannot be seen with naked eyes. These living organisms exist everywhere, i.e. in air, water, soil etc. Bacteria are found in all different shapes and sizes and are measured in micro-meter, i.e. millionth part of a meter.

There are myriad types of bacteria exist in this world. Previously, the bacteria are grouped on the basis of their shapes, i.e. morphology, biochemistry, and staining (Gram Positive or Gram Negative), but today, DNA sequencing technique is widely used along with morphology. Other than classification, DNA sequencing technique also helps inferring the relationship between two different types of bacteria. There are certain other elements which help in classifying the bacteria such as conditions required for their growth, biochemical reactions (i.e. biochemistry as mentioned above), antigenic properties, metabolic activities and other characteristics.

There are numerous types of bacteria which belong to the same family and even develop from the same ancestors. Each and every type bears its own characteristic features.

Classification of Bacteria

Classification of bacteria is done by using any of the method we have mentioned earlier. These are basically called phylum (scientific classification). However, to make it simple let us say different groups of bacteria discussed below:

Bacteria Classification Based On Shapes

As we have mentioned above that before the invention of DNA sequencing technique, the classification of bacteria is made on the basis of shapes or other biochemical properties. There are three prominent shapes known for bacteria, i.e. rod shaped which are called bacilli, sphere shaped which are called cocci and spiral shaped which are called spirilla. Besides these shapes, there are some other complex shapes of bacteria as well.

Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

This classification of bacteria is dependent upon the requirement of oxygen which is essential for their survival. Those bacteria which need oxygen for their survival are known as aerobic bacteria and those which don’t require oxygen are called anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria don’t survive on oxygen and often die. Anaerobic bacteria usually found deep under the surface of earth, deep in ocean or in some kind of medium.

Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

Gram Positive and Gram Negative is a classification of bacteria which is established on the results of the Gram Staining Method on bacteria. In this method, an agent is utilized to tie to the cell wall of the bacteria.

Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Bacteria

It is another important classification of bacteria which based on the most important facet of bacteria growth and reproduction process. Autotrophs or autotrophic bacteria are the bacteria which get the required carbon from surrounding carbon-dioxide. There are autotrophic bacteria which produce sugar by directly utilizing the sunlight. However, there are few which require different chemical reactions for the production of sugar. On the other hand, heterotrophic bacteria get the required sugar or carob from the surrounding environment such as from the living organism or living cells they reside in.

Classification Based On Phyla

Following are given some of the different classification of bacteria on the basis of phyla:

  • Aquificae
  • Xenobacteria
  • Fibrobacter
  • Bacteroids
  • Firmicutes
  • Planctomycetes
  • Chrysogenetic
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Thermomicrobia
  • Chlorobia
  • Proteobacteria
  • Spirochaetes
  • Flavobacteria
  • Fusobacteria
  • Verrucomicrobia

All these phyla mentioned above are further classified into several different species and groups of bacteria. The different classifications of bacteria contains the bacteria found in different environments such as ocean water bacteria, bacteria that can survive highly alkaline environment, bacteria that can survive extreme temperatures (extreme hot as in sulfur water spring bacteria and extreme cold as found in Antarctica ice), bacteria that can withstand high radiation, sweet water bacteria, aerobic bacteria, autotrophic bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, bacteria that can survive in highly acidic environment etc.

Complete Blood Count

Types of Blood Tests

Blood test is an examination of small amount of your blood by the doctor with a view to analyze your medical condition. Blood tests are carried out by doctors for a number of different reasons. Although, blood tests are not just enough to diagnose any problem, they give your doctors enough information about your present health condition.  The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute has categorized blood into following different types:

Complete Blood Count

The complete blood count or CBC is a term used to refer to the number of tests which are carried out to have an idea about your white blood cell count, red blood cell count, platelet count, hemoglobin levels, and certain other vital blood components.

Blood Chemistry Tests

Blood chemistry tests are the tests which are performed to inspect the electrolytes by assessing sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate present in your body. These are essential for proper functioning of the body.

Blood Enzyme Tests

Blood enzyme tests are the tests which are carried out to sense any injury to the heart by assessing the creatine levels. These tests are also performed to measure the cardiac muscle protein levels as well. The higher levels indicate that you have had a heart attack.

Heart Disease Risk

There are certain blood tests which are performed to measure the level of cholesterol in blood such as lipoprotein panel. The results will show the total cholesterol count, LDL, HDL and triglycerides. The results higher or lower than normal levels suggest that you are more prone to heart diseases.

PSA Test

PSA or prostate-specific antigen test is performed on men and it is performed to measure the level of proteins produced by prostate. Higher levels can suggest cancer, enlargement or inflammation of gland.


Types of Addiction

Addiction is a state of compulsive psychological and physiological habit forming or it can be defined as a state of being tolerant to a habit or practice. Addiction is just not limited to drugs or alcohol. There are several different types of addiction that people suffer from in one way or other. Addiction is always vicious to people irrespective of its type.

The most obvious types which people often associated with the term addiction are that of alcohol and drugs. However, there are several other types of addiction as well which are destructive for people irrespective of their backgrounds. Following are given some of the most common types of addiction with brief description.

Different Types of Addiction

Alcohol Addiction

Alcohol addiction is one of the most common types of addiction wherein an alcoholic yearns and longs for more and more drink. An alcoholic doesn’t stay long without an alcohol and if at any time, he/she attempts to quit drinking, they become occupied with withdrawal symptoms. Consuming an alcohol in any social occasion is far different from being an alcoholic. Alcoholic is addict to alcohol and excessive consumption of alcohol is a major psychological aspect of their lives.

Drug Addiction

The other most common type of addiction is that of drugs where people are addicted to drugs of different kinds. Drug addiction can be of two types, i.e. one related to illegal drugs and the second related to the certain medications. Both these forms of drug addiction affect the people physiologically and psychologically. The repetitive use of any drug develops a strong tolerance in the body as a result of which an addict requires higher doses to get the same effect as when he/she started it.

There can be several different symptoms a drug addict has such as insomnia, or oversleeping, changed eating habits, carvings for any particular sweets or foods, change in personality and so on.

Internet Addiction (Online Addiction)

Internet addiction is a recent phenomenon and become common with the introduction of Internet in every house and even in offices. Internet addiction is considered as an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). It is thought that this disorder affects about 10 percent of the people who use Internet on the regular basis. People spend hours sitting in front of their personal computers performing different task such as chatting, surfing websites, playing online games, or spending time on social networking websites. Internet addiction can be mild to severe in its form.

Gambling Addiction

Gambling addiction is another severe form of addiction which not only affects the addict but also the people close to the addict. Gambling addiction is considered as devastating as alcohol and drug addiction. Gambling addiction is a kind of addiction in which a person can loose all his self dignity and even in severe cases desire to live as well. Gambling addiction is not a limited to one person; it is a kind of fire that blows up each and everything that comes in path. It’s a kind of curse in which people lost his power to think sensibly and take rash decision.

Food Addiction

The next type of addiction which we have included in our list is the food addiction of which many people are not aware of but it is always there. Food addiction is an addiction in which people get addicted to sugar or fat contents. An apt example of this type of addiction is binge eating. An addict may indulge himself in excessive eating or drinking and have no strength to refrain himself from excessive eating and drinking. A food addict normally indulges himself/herself in binge eating when he/she is depressed or frustrated.

Nicotine–Tobacco–Cigarette Smoking Addiction

Smoking addiction is another form of addiction wherein a person involves himself in excessive smoking. Smoking becomes an inevitable part of his life and he suffers several different emotional, psychological and physiological symptoms in case he doesn’t smoke for long. Although, everyone knows the devastating and destructive nature of smoking but once addicted to it no one is able to get rid of it easily.

Smoking is highly injurious to health and it is said that it reduces your life by 10 to 15 years. It can cause several lung diseases and even lung cancer in severe cases. Smokers usually die young or fell victim of several different respiratory of lung diseases.

Sexual Addiction

When a normal sex drive becomes obsession, it is terms as sexual addiction. In sexual addiction, the behavior of an addict becomes out of control and he/she has no tolerance. If deeply study this addiction, we will come to know that sexual addiction is pretty much of ‘process’ addiction than substance addiction such as alcohol or drugs. Process addiction is an addiction where elated feelings develop from the release of chemicals within the brain instead of any external source. A sexual addiction is not a limited term as it has several different forms such as pornography, lewdness, masturbation, sexual affairs, patronizing prostitutes, and voyeurism. In its extreme form sexual addiction takes the form of molestation, rape and murder. It is important to note here that the only thing that is common in all the different forms of sexual addiction is secrecy. All the different tasks related to sexual addiction are performed in extreme secrecy by the addicts.

Shopping Addiction

Shopping addiction is another form of addiction. This sort of addiction is usually summed up in a term oniomania. This term is derived from Greek words, ‘onios’ which means ‘for sale’ and ‘mania’ which means ‘insanity’. Psychiatrists usually sum up this as compulsive buying disorder (CBD or CB). According to the survey conducted by Times in December, 2006, about 6 percent of people in United States are shopping addict. An interesting aspect here is that the percentage of males and females suffering from this disorder is almost same, i.e. 5.5 percent and 6 percent respectively.

Addiction to Work (Workaholic)

In the last we are going to introduce you with another kind of addiction that is called workaholic (addiction to work). In this sort of addiction, the person is extremely cautious for his work, or career. In most severe cases, a workaholic develops a belief that he/she is the only person who can perform a certain job right. One of the major reasons for this kind of addiction is a sense of instability, insecurity and other related factors.

Workaholics normally spend most of the time working in the office or in home and spend a little time with their family. Due to their workaholic nature, they become mentally, emotionally, physically and spiritually weak as not having enough time to relax and enjoy their own lives.


Types of Eczema

Eczema is a type of chronic skin disorder that causes scaly and itchy rashes. Eczema, also known as dermatitis is a broad term used to refer to numerous unrelenting skin conditions. Different forms of eczema differ from each other in terms of their symptoms. Majority of the types of eczema are associated with allergies and some are caused by coming in contact with annoying chemicals, while there are few types which are caused by some medical conditions.

Following are given some of the different types of eczema along with their nature and symptoms:

Atopic Dermatitis

It is a form of eczema which is known to be a chronic skin condition that results in a dry, itchy, and irritated skin. This eczema is common in children as 90% of atopic dermatitis patients develop this condition before they are 5.

There is nothing to worry about this skin condition because it is neither infectious nor transmissible. Atopic dermatitis occur in families as he who develops this skin condition, his family has a background of having eczema, hay fever or asthma.

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

It is a type of eczema that develops over time when immune system responds to the substance in contact with a skin. This skin condition doesn’t develop overnight rather takes it time to develop with the recurrent contact of the skin with a substance. For instance, the skin conditions develop when earrings containing nickel comes in contact with the skin or jeans button or belt buckles. However, perfumes or rubber can also cause this skin condition. If you are aware of the substances that cause rashes on your skin, avoiding them is the best possible treatment.

Irritant Contact Dermatitis

It is somewhat similar to allergic contact dermatitis, but this is caused when the skin comes in contact with some sort of chemical substances that cause irritation to the skin like detergents or other chemicals. Irritant contact dermatitis usually develops in the hands and one can prevent it by simply avoiding the irritant chemicals.

Infantile Seborrhoeic Eczema

It is most common in the babies which are less than one years of age. It is yet not clear what cause this condition. It is often called cradle cap that begins to develop on the scalp or nappy areas and spreads rapidly. It doesn’t cause itchiness or make your baby feel uncomfortable and disappear on its own within few months. However, moisturizing creams and oils can be used to provide extra care to your babies.

Adult Seborrhoeic Eczema

This skin condition appears in the people who are between the age group of 20 to 40. In the early stages, it develops on the scalp in the form of mild dandruff, but gradually spreads to ears, face and chest. The symptoms include red, inflamed skin that begins to worsen. It is thought that this condition is caused primarily because of yeast growth. Anti-fungal cream on the infected area will help control this skin conditions.

Varicose Eczema

This is a kind of eczema that appears on the lower legs of the people with age between middle to late years. The major cause of this skin condition is the ineffective circulation. The varicose eczema occurs on the ankle areas where it grows and cause itchiness and inflammation. Emollients and steroid creams can be used on the infected areas to cure it. This can become ulcer if left untreated.

Discoid Eczema

Discoid eczema is commonly occurred in adult people. It develops without any prior indications in the form of red coin shaped appearances on the skin. It is more prominent on trunk or lower legs regions. If these are not treated on time, they will cause itchiness and discharge fluid as well. Emollients and steroids are used to cure it.

Dyshidrotic Dermatitis

This is more prominent on the palms, on the sides of the fingers and on soles of feet. Intense rash, burning or itching sensation are common symptoms.

Hand Dermatitis

Hand dermatitis is a name given to any skin condition that occurs on the hands. There can be many reasons that cause hand dermatitis such as repetitive jobs. These require extra care and treatment.


Neurodermatitis is another type of eczema that is usually caused because of some nerve irritation such as insect bites or emotional stress. The intense itch-scratch-itch cycle begins when the nerve endings become irritated.

Nummular Dermatitis

This skin condition normally associated with injuries as this appears in a result of any skin injury like burn, abrasion, or insect bite. It can appear individually or in patches in the form of coin-shaped or oval lesions.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

This appears on the scalp of a person having oily, waxy appearance. If this is left untreated, it can spread to the face or even further. In its extreme form it can cause lesions. It is most frequent in cold, dry conditions.

Occupational Dermatitis

It is a broad term used for the type of eczema caused to a person in his workplace. This occupational dermatitis is given this name because the major cause of these is an individual’s job.

Stasis Dermatitis

It is more prominent in the lower leg areas and is caused because of poor circulation. This poor circulation of blood results in the fluids accumulation as a result of which legs swell. Later on, this will result in itching, painful sores and discoloration of the affected skin. Proper treatment is required to cure this dermatitis.

Bone Fractures

Types of Fractures

The term fracture is in fact used for referring to the breaking of the bone. However, this term also refers to the breaking of any hard material as well. There can be many reasons for sustaining a fracture such as falling from a height, accidents, especially road accidents, or repetitive forces on the bone such as in case of some physical exercises or weightlifting. Fractures are more common in adults, especially aged people than children. The bones of the children are soft and resilient in nature while the adults have the bones much fragile which can receive fracture under certain conditions.

Different Types of Bone Fractures

There are so many different types of fractures characterized by their nature and intensity of damage done. Some of the different types of fractures are given below:

Open Fracture: In this type of fracture, the broken bone passes into the skin. Open fractures are considered much more severe as they require immediate medical treatment to prevent the risks of in infection by cleaning the wounded area. Open fractures take much time to heal and require a lot of care to prevent complications of the recuperation process.

Closed Fracture: Unlike open fractures where broken bones penetrate the skin, broken bones don’t penetrate the skin in closed fracture. However, these are the fractures that require immediate medical treatment to minimize risks of infection and to clean the area of fracture.

Simple Fracture: Simple fracture is a type of fracture in which broken bone doesn’t penetrate the skin. Remember, you can judge a fracture severity by its name as there are so many other factors that determine the severity of the fracture.

Compound Fracture: Compound fractures are often compared with simple fractures. In compound fracture, the skin penetration takes place and the bone either remain on the outer side of the skin or pierce the skin from the inner side and move back where it cannot be seen.

Multi-Fragmentary Fracture: As the name suggests, in this type of fracture the bone is broken into several fragments of pieces. A severe accident or injury can result in this type of fracture. These fractures are normally dealt with immobilization with cast, or even with pins, screws or plates.

Compression Fracture: A compression fracture is a type of fracture which develops in the vertebral body of the spine once it is squashed or squished. Compression fracture can be seen commonly in two sections of people, i.e.

The first is the group of people with some kind of traumatic mishaps, i.e. when the load placed on the vertebrae surpasses its steadiness, it can collapse like having a sudden fall. The second group of people are the one having osteoporosis.

Avulsion Fracture: It is a type of closed fracture where an abrupt, strong contraction of a muscle cause fracture to a piece of bone. Avulsion fracture is commonly seen in athletes. The major cause of this fracture is an improper stretching out before any muscular activity. However, some sort of injuries can also cause this fracture.

Impacted Fracture: It is a type of closed fracture that is analogous to compressed fracture as both cause fracture to the same bone. This fracture occurs because of extreme pressure on both ends of the bone resulting in splitting up of the bone fragments into two parts stuck into each other. Car accidents and falls are most obvious factors behind this kind of fracture.

Stress Fracture: Stress fractures are often related to athletes as the number of stress fracture occurrence is high in athletes than others. It is often referred to as overuse injury which is caused by repetitive actions over a period of time. This is also referred to as ‘Fatigue Fractures’ in many of the cases. The athletes who are involved in running and jumping such as long runners, basketball players or ballet dancers are more prone to stress fractures. Besides this, there can be other reasons for this injury as well such as severe accidents or major falls. A powerful and strong force that results due to accident or fall apply pressure on bones as result it receives injuries.

Compression Fracture of the Spine: These fractures are quite painful and often cause some sort of disability. Such fractures are mostly associated to the people suffering from osteoporosis.

Rib Fractures: Having difficulty in breathing, such as low breathing, tenderness or pain may suggest that you have rib fracture. If you feel pain while touching your ribs, this should be taken seriously as it can be due to broken rib.

Complete Fracture: It is a type of fracture where a person receives fractures on the bone that runs to its entire length. Complete fractures are often taken as severe fractures, especially when the swelling moves the two pieces of bone away from one another. An immediate medical attention is required to treat such fractures. The fractured area requires to be immobilized with cast, or even with pins, screws or plates.

Incomplete Fracture: Incomplete fracture often referred to as greenstick fracture is a fracture in which bone doesn’t break completely. Such fractures are most common in children than adults. In incomplete fracture, one can see small cracks or splinters on the bone; however, the bone still retains its actual position and also remains unbroken or undamaged.

Linear Fracture: It is type of incomplete fracture where no dislocation of the bone takes place. It is a less intensive type of fracture in which bone and its surrounding tissues receives minimum of damage or injuries. Small fissures or splinters can be seen on the bone’s outer layer only and no entire breaking of the bone. Linear fractures are also referred to as Hairline Fractures.

Transverse Fracture: A transverse fracture is a fracture in which the bone receives a break in a way that it is at right angle to the long axis of the bone. A transverse fracture can result from an abrupt, direct blow as in karate etc. However, it can also be taken as a stress fracture which is caused by repetitive actions such as physical exercises or running.

Oblique Fracture: Oblique fracture is a type of fracture in which a break occurs along fracture line that is diagonal to the bone shaft.

Spiral Fracture: A twisting force is responsible for a spiral fracture. A spiral fracture is also called a torsion fracture for the fact of having a force that cause spiral fracture. In spiral fracture, the bone receives a spiral break for which the treatment becomes quite complex. The person with spiral fracture has to wait for months before becoming fully fit again. One has to spend months in a cast and may need to have a surgery which all depends on certain factors such as position of the fracture, health of the person, or certain other relevant factors.

Comminuted Fracture: In comminuted fracture, the bone breaks into several fragments or pieces. Normally, a fracture is said to be comminuted when the bone is broken down into at least three pieces. These fractures are not easy to treat because of severity of the fracture. The things get worse if the comminuted fracture is an open fracture where the bones penetrate the skin. If the comminuted fracture is an open fracture then one must take a lot of care of the fracture as open injuries are more vulnerable to infections and also open fracture takes too much time to heal.

Compacted Fracture: Compacted fracture is a type of fracture where the bones after sustaining a fracture pressed tightly into each other. This type of fracture is normally caused by some severe accidents.

Fracture is a medical condition where a bone or bones break into fragments. Either the fracture is severe or not, it is necessary to seek medical attention immediately to make certain that no further deteriorating of the injury takes place. Doctors, normally make use of an x-ray machine to diagnose the fractures which are not visible or of closed nature. Remember, fractures always take some time to heal and you have to make sure that you take all the essential care that is needed during the recuperation process.

Alpers’ Disease

Types of Genetic Disorders

The most obvious cause of genetic disorders is irregularities in the genes or chromosomes of the people. Genetic disorders usually appear in the person with two or more abnormal genes. Missing genes, extra genes, inactivated genes and/or overly active genes are the major factors that cause the genetic disorders. These genetic abnormalities often passed on to children from parents through random genetic changes which normally take place during the growth of embryo. Often the amino acid structures responsible for the development of genes copied incorrectly that cause insensitive loss, addition or replacement, this leads to the mutation of the structure. Due to this, proteins dysfunction occur which eventually lead to genetic disorder. Medically, over 6,000 types of genetic disorders are recognized. It is not possible to discuss all of them in this short article, so the most prominent genetic disorders are given below.

Different Types of Genetic Disorders

Alpers’ Disease

Alpers’ disease or aplers’ syndrome is an unusual progressive type of neurological disorder. This disorder is responsible for causing progressive exacerbation of grey matter in the cerebrum which results in spasticity, dementia, muscle jerks, retardation and hypotonia (low muscle tone).

Anophthalmia Syndrome

The abnormal development of eyes and other organs of the body are often associated with anophthalmia syndrome. In this type of genetic disorder, the affected person often has hardly visible eyeballs and only has left over eye tissues. The other symptoms shown by the patient involve abnormal brain, slow growth, learning disability, and delayed motor skills.


Haemophilia is a genetic disorder that comes under the group of hereditary genetic disorders or bleeding disorders. This type of disorder is often characterized by uncoagulated blood. This is extremely become severe in the situations where a person receives an injury or faces an accident as blood doesn’t clot easily. In haemophilia, a person may bleed for extended time as result of which a lot of blood loss can be experienced. With haemophilia, even a small injury can lead to a large amount of blood loss.


It is a type of inherited disorder in which the production of melanin in the hair, skin and iris of the eyes is affected. The melanin is produced either in a very small amount or there is entirely no melanin production. The people with albinism often have light-colored hairs, eyes and skin. The major cause of albinism is the inheritance of recessive alleles. This illness has no cure; however, the symptoms of the disease can be controlled somehow with the proper interference of medical practices, vision aids or different objects and devices that keep the patient with albinism from the harmful rays of the sun.

Cystic Fibrosis Syndrome

It is another hereditary genetic disorder which influences the whole body. It affects the human body slowly and steadily which often leads to permanent disability and even death. Because of weak immune system and thick mucus production, the lungs get infected and the infections of the lungs can only be treated but it cannot be cured. Cystic fibrosis syndrome is a critical disorder that is responsible for the production of thick mucus. This thick mucus in return blocks the passages leading to lungs and eventually causes infections.


Progeria is a rare genetic disorder that normally starts from childhood. Progeria is a disorder associated with the rapid aging process. Although, the symptoms of this disease very much appear like a normal human aging process, they usually emerge in the children. The mutation of the gene that encrypts the protein lamina A has been seen in over 90% of children affected from progeria.

Above mentioned are some of the different types of the genetic disorders. However, there are many other rare genetic disorders besides mentioned ones.

Conductive Deafness

Types of Deafness

Deafness is a medical condition or state where a person is unable to hear, or in simple words, it is a loss of hearing. There can be many reasons behind deafness like illnesses or physical trauma. Genetic factors can also be accountable for loss of hearing. Another common reason of deafness is an excessive exposure to noise. Deafness is categorized into different types depending on the symptoms. Following are given few types of deafness.

Conductive: Conducting hearing loss is a type of deafness in which sound is unable to conduct through the outer or middle ear. It is the mild form of hearing loss and in majority of the cases the sound quality remains unaffected if amplified.

Perceptive: Perceptive hearing loss is a type of deafness in which sound waves may reach the inner ear but the person unable to sense the sound because of injured nerves that lead to the brain. The sensorineural hearing loss is a hearing loss in which the inner ear, the cochlea or the auditory nervous system is dysfunctional. It is quite unusual to have a hearing loss because of impaired auditory sensors of brain.

Deafness due to Genetic Factors: If there are signs of prevailing deafness gene in the family, one can expect to see the cases of deafness in the coming generations as well. However, some kind of congenital impairment can also cause hearing loss.

Deafness caused due to Exposure to Noise: It is also a common type of deafness. Those who have a long term exposure to noise often experience deafness or hearing loss. There can be different factors causing deafness due to noise such as car stereos, noises produced by vehicles on the roads, air traffic, or noise produced by industrial facilities. Another common reason behind this type of deafness is the increased usage of headphones by the people.

Deafness caused due to Diseases: There are many diseases which can cause deafness in a person such as meningitis, measles, mumps and otosclerosis. There are certain other medical factors that can cause impairment in the auditory system such as premature births and AIDS.

Pre-lingual Deafness: Certain congenital factors are accountable for pre-lingual deafness. It can also develop before a person begins to acquire language and speech.

Post-lingual Deafness: Post-lingual deafness is opposite to the pre-lingual deafness. When a person suffers from deafness somewhere after the acquisition of speech and language, it is called post-lingual deafness.

Unilateral Hearing Loss: Unilateral hearing loss is a kind of deafness where a person can hear normally from one ear and having difficulty hearing from other.

Deafness due to Ear Injury: If a person’s eardrum gets damage, he/she will have difficulty in hearing. Eardrum is a thin membrane between ear canal and the middle ear.

He who doesn’t differentiate between the amplitudes and frequencies of sound waves is one suffering from any of the kinds of deafness.


Types of Warts

A wart is a kind of small, rough growth on the surface of the skin usually caused by some kind of viral infection. A virus from the family of HPV virus or human papillomavirus is known to be responsible for warts. This virus has the tendency to spread by coming in contact with the affected person or by coming in contact with the infected surface. A wart is normally a hard, bump on the skin which can develop on any part of the body; however, it is more common on hands and feet. Warts are of different types and there are over sixty different recognized types of warts. All these types are classified on the basis of their symptoms such as oozing, burning and itching.

Mostly, warts disappear after some time and no treatment is required. However, there are certain types of warts that last for loner period of times, even for years. Such types of warts certainly need a treatment. As we know that warts are normally infectious and transmissible, these are more common in few people than others. Some of the common types of warts are given below.

Common Warts

Common warts usually appear on the back of the fingers, toes and on knees as well in rare cases. These are rough and appear like a cauliflower. Common warts usually appear at the places with broken skin. For instance, they occur at the sites of broken fingernails. These are also referred to as warts on hands. However, these are also commonly known as seed warts because of the black dot that appears on the top of the wart. This black dot appears because of the broken blood vessels giving it a look of small black seed. Common warts can occur either as a single wart or a cluster of warts. Common warts or seed warts appear when a person comes in contact with the infected person or having a poor immune system. They are not harmful like certain other warts. Some of the major symptoms include redness of the skin, protruded skin, inflammation and pain.

Plantar Warts

Plantar warts are the warts that occur on the sole of the foot. The surface of the foot where these warts normally appear is known as plantar surface so these warts are given the name of plantar warts. As these warts occur at the bottom of the foot so they are not protruded warts. These warts have the tendency to appear in clusters so when they occur in cluster, they are called mosaic warts. Plantar warts normally develops on the outer skin and don’t possess any roots. An individual with plantar warts feels like having a stone in the shoes while walking as it hurts. These warts also have a black dot on the top showing the broken blood vessel.

Periungual Warts

Periungual warts are very painful for the person having them. These are rough and normally appear near the nails. These warts can be severe if the virus spread to the area under the nail. This can deform or warp the nails. In rare cases, a fungal infection develops in the nails or nail plates which is quite complex to handle. The best prevention of these complex situations is the immediate treatment of such warts otherwise these can be very severe.

Flat Warts

Flat warts are a kind of tiny warts that occur in bunch. These are so small that the diameter of these warts hardly falls in millimeters. Appearance of warts usually occurs on the face. Warts are normally smooth when they occur in children’s face while in adults these warts appear in the areas which are shaved. Flat warts are also commonly referred to as plan warts.

Genital Warts

Genital warts or often called vaginal warts. As these warts commonly appear on the genital areas, these are given this name. The other names given to these warts include venereal warts or anal warts (if occur in anal region). It is believed that Type 6 and Type 11 human papillomavirus (HPV) are accountable for 90% of such warts. These warts are considered as sexually transmitted disease as they are caused by having a sexual contact with an infected person. If genitals warts are ignored for a long time they can cause serious cancers such as cervical cancer, anus cancer and vulva cancer. However, it is important to note here that a long incubation period is attached with vaginal warts and one should consult the doctor during that time to avoid severe results.

Oral Warts

As the name suggests, these warts occur in the oral cavity or on the lips of a person. These small, distinct, rough and bumpy warts normally appear individually or in small clusters. These warts are usually painless and occur in several forms such as domed-shaped with white or normal mucosa color; flat-topped elevations of normal mucosa color; and thickened frond-like developing. It has been noted that oral warts are becoming more and more common with an increasing trend of oral sex in recent few years.

Facial Warts | Filiform Warts

Warts are common in humans all over the world. They can appear on any part of the body usually having a rough, lumpy appearance. Filiform or facial warts are the warts that normally appear on the face, around eyelids, lips or neck. Facial warts are generally long, narrow and frond-like growths having a flesh like color. They appear individually or in clusters with relatively quick growth.

Animal Warts

Animal warts are quite different from those of humans. For instance, if we take an example of the lumps on the toad’s body which are though called ‘warts’ but are not warts in fact because those are not caused by papillomavirus nor do they contagious. The warts on toad’s body are in fact a kind of protective camouflage that provides it shelter in its particular environment. Mostly, the warts on toad’s body have glands that produce toxins and repel its predators. It is by no means possible to get warts by handling the toads as the warts on toads are not infectious. However, there are animal species which can develop real warts by means of papillomavirus. Birds, fish, cattle, horses and dogs all are the domestic species of animals which have the tendency to develop warts. Animal warts are normally of cosmetic nature, yet virus is accountable for these warts, such animals are not given an opportunity to take part in shows or competitions.

Warts are caused by HPV virus and one can only prevent them only by having a strong immune system that ensures your protection against the infections. Strong immune system is the only key to avoid viral infections and many other diseases.