Types of Tropes

A trope is a figure of speech wherein a word or phrase is used in such a way that is different from its usual or regular meaning to create a particular mental image or effect. Metaphor and simile are the two most apt examples of trope and there are several others. In literature, this figure of speech is widely used in one way or another. We can see trope in fiction, film, poetry etc. Tropes are used extensively by writers and poets in their work as these act as a powerful tool for them to convey their meanings in an implied manner. Nowadays, tropes are also widely used in the advertisements and propaganda.

The term trope is derived from a Greek word ‘tropos’ meaning ‘to turn or twist’, so it does. Tropes are used where one wants to twist the original meaning of the word or phrase to imply some hidden meanings. For instance, a novelist gives a description of a woman in his novel as a woman with hairs shining like the sun.


It is a figure of speech which involves the symbolic word representation or referring to something by the name of something of which it is closely related. For instance, White House is used to refer to president of United States and Westminster is used to refer to the Parliament of the United Kingdom.


Irony is a figure of speech in which the word or phrase expresses the meaning exactly opposite to its literal meaning. The term irony is derived from a Greek word that means dissimulation or feigned ignorance. Irony is largely used in literary works and considered as a rhetorical device. There are three major types of irony, i.e. verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Verbal irony is the irony where the conveyed meaning is completely contrasted to the literal meaning. Situational irony on the other hand is a type of irony in which the actions taken have an opposite effect from what is intended. Dramatic irony is the irony in which the characters exhibit their lack of capability to comprehend their own situation.


Metaphor is a figure of speech wherein a word or phrase denoting a thing or idea is implemented to any other word or phrase to hint some similarity between them or metaphor is a figure of speech to which describes one thing or idea in terms of other. For instance, she has a heart of stone or her eyes were glistening jewels.


Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole or a whole is used to represent the part of something. Other used of the synecdoche include:

  • A specific class of thing is used to refer to a larger, more general class.
  • A general class of thing is used to refer to a smaller, more specific class.
  • A material is used to refer to an object composed of that material.
  • A container is used to refer to its contents.

Synecdoche is an important figure of speech which is widely used by the literary people especially to represent their characters in terms of some characteristic features rather than calling them by name like eyes or hairs etc.


It is a figure of speech in which a key word is repeated again and again where the same word implies for different or contrary meanings each time. For instance, if we do not hang together, we will hang separately.

The use of anatanaclasis is very effective to make some striking effect on the listeners or readers. It is used to attract the attention of the listeners or readers to think twice before making any conclusion about the statement.


Allegory is a figurative mode of representation in which the meanings are conveyed in a way that they are completely opposite to the literal meaning. In fact, allegory is symbolic representation, figures or actions representing an idea or quality such as truth, evil death etc. In allegory, the characters are personified where they represent abstract ideas like charity, greed, envy and so on. If we talk about allegory as a literary device, it is considered as an extended form of metaphor. If we take it as an artistic device, it is taken as a visual symbolic representation.

Allegory generally conveys two meaning, i.e. one is its literal meaning and the other is symbolic meaning. It is not always necessary that each fiction with general application is an allegory. It may not be an allegory all the time.


Types of Buses

Since the appearance of motor vehicles, public transportation has been enhanced by greatly. Presently, different means of public transportation has been known such as subways, trolley cars, buses, planes and taxi cabs. Among these different forms of transportation, buses are perhaps the most popular form of public transportation all over the world. Buses can be used in several different ways. There are school buses, public buses, coach buses and even tour buses and all are meant to perform different functions. School buses are the most commonly used vehicles on the roads which are meant to pick and drop the school children from home to school and school to home. Let us have a look at some of the different types of buses and their functions.

Tour Buses: As the name suggests, these buses are meant for tourism where tourists are taken to different places on these buses like New York, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and so on. For instance, if we talk about Philadelphia, these buses take the tourists to the Constitution Center, the Art Museum, Independence Mall, Betsy Ross’ House and Old City. Tour buses are also common in London. Double decker buses are commonly associated with London and make their way into the United States later at some time. These double deckers are widely used in the cities mentioned earlier.

Coach Buses: Coach Buses are the buses which are there to arrange long term trips across the country. Even these buses are used to take athletic teams from one place to another, from airports to hotels etc. A standard coach bus normally has a bathroom, comfortable seating and even a TV as well. These buses are normally adorned with decals and paint to achieve harmony between the team’s colors and logos.

Public Transit: These are likely to be the most frequent buses which one can see on the roads. Public transit buses are the buses for public which run on different routes within the city to take the people from one place to another, especially from home to offices or schools and vice versa. Other than that these buses normally cover all the major places in the city such as cinemas, shopping malls, sport auditoriums, museums, tourist resorts etc. Public transit buses are usually controlled by the city government such as in Philadelphia, the buses are run by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA).

Tramcars: These are the types of buses which are widely used today. Trams or tramcars are the buses which provide transportation on a short route such as to transport people back and forth in parking lots, airport, or theme parks. However, they can perform the role of public transit buses as well in some countries, though smaller in size than a normal bus, but perform the same function.

These are some of the different types of buses which are used in different parts of the world. The term bus is in fact taken from the word ‘omnibus’ which means ‘for all’. This implies that that bus is something that can be used by everyone. People belongs to different phases of life, ages can make use of this public transportation. It is worth mentioning here that the first bus was used by the French in 1862, but then horses were used to pull those buses.


Types of Metal

The term metal is always hard to define. However, a dictionary definition of metal is, “a substance that is usually hard and shiny and that heat and electricity can travel through.” Metals are found with changing degrees of hardness, malleability, ductility, hardness and density. Malleability is a property of being easily molded into different shapes without breaking or cracking while ductility is property given to the metals that can be made into thin wire. Almost all the metals have a certain melting point and can be combined with other metals by melting to form alloys. It is important to note here that all the metals except mercury are solid at normal temperatures. Following are given some of the different types of metal.


Aluminum is lightweight metal that is commonly used all over the world. In its raw form, it is extremely strong and to make it suitable for use is often alloyed with silicon. Generally 1 percent of silicon of silicon is used with aluminum. However, in case of casting alloys, 12 percent of silicon is used.

Raw aluminum also has a bad tolerance to corrosion, however, the self generating oxide layer enable it to be used in environments more prone to corrosion.

Raw aluminum has poor corrosive resistance, but thanks to a protective self generating oxide layer, the material can be used in corrosive environments. Anodizing process is used to check the quality of oxide layer.

Foamed Aluminum

Where light aluminum structures are required, foamed aluminum is used. The aluminum is foamed by mixing the aluminum with the titanium hydride prior to casting as a result of which hydrogen gas foams the aluminum. Foamed aluminum has a porous surface and an additional layer of solid aluminum is used to cover this. Contrary to honeycombed aluminum compositions, the structures of foamed aluminum are used in the temperature range similar to solid aluminum.


Bismuth is a heavy, fragile and white crystalline trivalent metal with a pink shade. Chemically, bismuth is similar to arsenic and antimony. The chemical symbol for bismuth is ‘Bi’ with an atomic number of 83. Bismuth is also known as the most naturally diamagnetic metal among all others.

Bismuth is widely used in cosmetics and medical procedures. One of the major reasons behind the popularity of bismuth metal is the fact that bismuth is used as a substitute for the lead as lead is highly toxic. Therefore, bismuth has gain considerable commercial value over the last few years.


Brass is a kind of yellow allow usually made of copper and zinc and is widely used in musical instruments, rifle cartridges and cutlery. The alloy of brass which is low in zinc content, i.e. 30 percent of it is considered to have a good formability property and often refer to as cartridge brass. However, the alloy with rich zinc content shows good casting and machining properties.


Bronze is a type of metal which is hard, have good weather tolerance and good casting properties. It is basically a reddish alloy commonly used in church bells, canons, bearings and in casted sculptures. Copper has a major share in the alloying of bronze. Tin and nickel are some of the other alloying elements.


It is chemical element that has its chemical symbol as ‘Cd’ with atomic number 48 in the periodic table. Cadmium is a transition element that is soft, bluish-white and rare. It is believed that cadmium can cause cancer and normally found with the zinc ores. The major use of cadmium can be seen in batteries and pigments like plastic products.


Chromium is a metallic element that is commonly used in chromium plating for the purpose of decoration, corrosion and for wear protection. Chromium is also used as an alloying element in stainless steel. Unlike pure chromium which is ductile and mostly produced in laboratories, the commonly found chromium is hard and delicate at 700°C and above this temperature the element turns ductile. Similarly, chromium shows a good resistant against corrosion and oxidation at temperature of about 1100°C. This is possible because of the presence of resistant film on the surface.


Cobalt is a metallic chemical element that has its symbols as ‘Co’ in the periodic table. This hard, lustrous, silvery-gray metal occurs in variety of ores. Cobalt is normally used to prepare magnetic, wear resistant, high-strength alloys. The compounds of cobalt are used to produce ink, varnishes and paints.


Copper is a good conductor of electricity. It is red, slightly expensive and soft chemical element. It is widely used in the manufacturing of electric wires. Other than that it is also used in water pipes, roof plates, and in some old cooking appliances. In bronze (with tin) and brass (with zinc), copper is an important alloying element.


A yellow colored precious chemical element used in making coins, jewelry, decorative objects etc. In the periodic table, its symbol is Au (derived from Latin Aurum) and its atomic number is 79. For many centuries, this metal has remained in use as money. Gold is commonly found in rocks in the form of nuggets or lumps. It also occurs in veins under the surface of earth and also in alluvial (mud or sand deposits) deposits. It is compact, lustrous and has good properties of being malleable and ductile.

The most interesting fact of gold as metal is, it sets the monetary standards for both the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). XAU is known to be the currency code of gold bullion (or bars).

Gold is both univalent and trivalent if we take it chemically. Although, gold is not known to react with other chemical elements, it still gets affected by chlorine, fluorine, aqua regia and cyanide. It makes mixtures of alloys when dissolves in mercury, but at no place it reacts with it. Unlike silver and base metals, gold is insoluble in nitric acid and that is the reason nitric acid has used for centuries to verify the gold presence in an object. This technique is also called ‘acid test’.

Cast Iron

Cast iron is a term used to refer to the family of alloys (ferrous alloys) made of iron, carbon about 2 to 4.5% and about 3.5% of silicon. Cast iron is available in several varieties.

If we talk about gray cast iron, it has low ductile properties, dampens vibrations and fragile. Carbon is found in the form of graphite flakes in gray cast iron. White cast iron is another variety of cast iron that is hard, possesses good resistant and is fragile. In white cast iron, the carbon is found in extremely hard ceramic particles known as cmentite.

Ductile iron as the name suggests shows good ductile properties. It is also shows good resistant against shocks. Ductile iron is formed by giving a heat treatment to gray cast iron. Malleable iron is another variety which is sturdy, shock resistant and ductile as well.


Lead is a soft, heavy metal mostly used in ship keels and in fishing nets sinkers to add weight. Another important use of lead can be seen where it is used as insulation next to radioactivity. Previously, lead was commonly used in roof windows and in shotguns. But as the poisonous and toxic properties of lead appeared on the scene, the use of lead discarded.


Magnesium is another important light, silver-white metallic chemical element that gives a bright white flame when burned. Magnesium is widely used in place of aluminum with a view to reduce weight. Magnesium is a reactive metal and commonly used in the manufacturing of car wheels and power saws.


Mercury, a poisonous silver liquid metal, widely used in thermometers and is also referred to as quicksilver. In the periodic table, it has its chemical symbol as ‘Hg’ (derived from Latinized Greek ‘hydrargyrum’ which means ‘watery or liquid silver’) and has an atomic number of 80. It is known to be one among other four elements (caesium, francium, and gallium, and the non-metal bromine) that take the liquid form at or near room temperature and pressure.

Other than thermometers, it is also used in barometers and several other scientific apparatus. Because of its toxic properties, its use in thermometers has greatly been reduced and is replaced by alcohol filled, digital and thermistor-based instruments. However, mercury thermometers still have a role to play in several different scientific research applications.

This metallic chemical element is found in deposits all over the world and is harmless in an insoluble form like in mercuric sulfide; however, it becomes toxic in soluble states like those of mercuric chloride or methylmercury.


A chemical element and a silver gray metal that is brittle and used in alloy steels. In the periodic table, it is represented by a symbol ‘Mo’ and has an atomic number 42. Among all the other elements, molybdenum is known to possess sixth highest melting point. This high melting point makes it useful for strong steel alloys. It is present in animals and plants in less amount and excessive presence can be poisonous in few animals. It was in 1778, when Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered this element. It took three years before it was isolated by Peter Jacob Hjelm in 1781.

On the Pauling scale, it has an electro-negativity of 1.8 and an atomic mass of 59.9 g/mole. It is a transition metal that doesn’t react with oxygen or water, especially at room temperature. On higher temperatures, it forms the molybdenum trioxide by reacting with oxygen, i.e. given by the reaction: 2Mo+ 3O2 = 2MoO3.

It is one of the five elements having a high melting point, i.e. 2623°C. The other elements having high melting points are tantalum, osmium, rhenium and tungsten. It requires a temperature of over 600°C to burn.

By 4 May, 2007, its value was recorded as $65,000 per metric ton (or per tonne). From 1997 to 2007, its value remained $10,000. However, by June, 2005, the value of molybdenum reached $103,000 per metric ton or tonne.


Nickel is a hard silver-white metal that is used in the making of some types of steel or other alloys. Nickel coating is used on the surfaces for several different reasons such as for decorative purposes, erosion and corrosion resistant.

On higher temperatures, nickel alloys shows extremely excellent resistant against corrosion. Chromium, cobalt and molybdenum are some of the most commonly used alloying elements in nickel.

When it comes to nickel, it is strong, showing good resistant against corrosion and erosion and also robust. Nickel is widely used in stainless steel and other than that nickel alloys (superalloys) are commonly used in the preparation of appliances or equipments that work under immense temperatures such as engine components, rockets etc.


It is another chemical element which has its symbol ‘Pt’ in periodic table with atomic number 78. It is a silver-gray precious transition metal that is heavy, malleable and ductile. Platinum has good-resistant against the corrosion. It usually found in nickel and copper ores together with some other native deposits. It is widely used in automobile emission control devices, laboratory equipments, jewelry, dentistry and electrical contacts. ‘XPT’ is an ISO currency code used for platinum.


A chemical element has ‘Pd’ its chemical symbol in the periodic table and atomic number of 46. It is a rare silver-white transition metal that chemically looks like platinum. In 1803, it was discovered in platinum ores. It is given its name after the asteroid Pallas by William Hyde Wollaston.

It occurs as a free metal and afterwards alloyed with metals in platinum group. Palladium is used in different ways such as catalysis in catalytic converters in cars; on carbon it is used in organic chemistry and other similar chemical reactions. It is also used in the making of jewelry. ‘XPD’ is an ISO currency code for palladium.


Silver is a grayish-white precious metal represent by the symbol ‘Ag’ (derived from Latin ‘Agentum’) in periodic table and has an atomic number of 47. Being a metal, it possesses good thermal and electrical conductivity. Silver can be found as a free metal or in several minerals like argentite and chlorargyrite. Majority of the time, silver is obtained as a secondary product of copper, gold, lead, and zinc mining.

Since primitive people to present, silver has been used in one way or another. Being considered as a precious metal, it was used to make coins, currency, jewelry, cooking utensils, and ornaments. ‘XAG’ is an ISO currency code given to silver bullion.


Steel is a strong hard metal that is composed of a mixture of iron and about 2.1% of carbon. In order to make it more strong, the quantity of carbon contents are altered in the alloy, i.e. more the carbon contents in the alloy, stronger will be the metal. There are three standards of steel in respect to carbon, i.e. low carbon steel (having less than 0.3% carbon) is used in the manufacturing of nuts, bolts, sheets and tubes; Medium carbon steel (0.3-0.6% of carbon) is used in automotive and machinery equipments; and High carbon steel (over 0.6% of carbon) is known to be sturdy, tough, and erosion resistant used in the making of cutlery, springs, and cutting tools.

High Tensile Steel

High tensile steel is another metal which is ten times stronger than the tensile strength of wood and twice as stronger than mild steel. By increasing the tensile strength of the metal, the hardiness of metals is lessened. As a safety precaution, for large structures, the amount of acceptable stress is lowered.

Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is a kind of steel that is strong, hard, show good resistant against corrosion and ductile properties. Stainless steel is comprised of 11% of chromium, nickel and some other alloying elements. On exposure to oxygen, a hard thin layer develops on the surface that helps protect it against the corrosion. If you remove this thin layer, it will come back again. The strength of stainless steel depends on the carbon contents. Higher the carbon contents mean more strength, but lower resistant against corrosion.


Tantalum was previously known as tantalium. It is a chemical element that is hard and silver-gray in color. In the periodic table, it is represented as ‘Ta’ and has an atomic number of 73. This shiny transition metal shows good resistant against corrosion and is found in the mineral called tantalite.


It is another chemical element that is found in the sulfide ores. Chemically, it looks similar to tin, and is related to selenium and sulfur. It is lustrous silver-white element which is brittle, having ‘Te’ its symbol in periodic table with an atomic number of 52.


It is a soft silver-white metal that is usually used with other metals or used to cover them to avoid corrosion such as foot tins, casseroles etc. Below the room temperature, pure tin breaks apart into white powder called tin pest. In past, tin was used to make mugs, household plates and canclestics. Bismuth, antimon and lead are some alloying elements for tin.


It is a silver-white metal that is used to make different strong but lightweight materials. It is good against corrosion and keeps intact both in room and higher temperatures. It is for this reason, titanium is widely used in the application like aircrafts, jet-engines, racing cars, chemical and marine parts etc. aluminum, vanadium, and magnesium and molybdenum are some of the different alloying elements.


Among all the other metals, tungsten is known to have the highest melting point, i.e. 3410°C. This makes it a strong and hard metal. However, it is fragile, and shows poor resistant against corrosion. Tungsten along with its alloying elements is used in the applications demanding more than 1650°C of temperature such as nozzle of throat lines in missiles, hottest parts in jet and rocket engines. In incandescent bulbs, the filament wire is also made from pure tungsten using the powder technology.


It is a bluish-white metal which is inexpensive and has good weather proof properties. It is commonly used in the roofs and roof gutters. Before stainless steel, zinc was used to make kitchen utensils. Because of having low melting point and good casting properties, it is often preferred in materials where low strength is enough such as beer openers, door handles. Zinc along with copper is a vital alloying element in brass.


Types of Diabetes

Diabetes is a common medical condition that affects the people throughout the world. Statistics shows that in United Kingdom alone, 2.8 million people have diabetes. Apart from these 2.8 million, there are 850,000 people who are not aware of the fact that they have diabetes.

Diabetes is a medical condition wherein the amount of sugar or glucose in blood exceeds the normal level because of several reasons. Usually pancreas stops producing any insulin or doesn’t produce the required amount of insulin which is essential to keep the blood level maintained in the body. Even sometimes, insulin is produced by pancreas but this is ineffective. This condition is called insulin resistance.

Diabetes is of different types. There are three major types of diabetes given below:

Type 1

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t release sufficient amount of insulin required to keep the blood sugar level under control. This chronic disease is known to be an autoimmune disease wherein the body’s immune system acts against any of the body part. In this case, immune system acts against the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and kill them, eventually results in the reduction or stopping of the insulin. Insulin helps the sugar or glucose to enter the blood. In United States, about 5-10% of diabetic patients have Type 1. Mostly, type diabetes develops in children and young adults; however, this can occur at any time even in older age.

Some of the common symptoms of type 1 diabetes are weight loss, increased hunger, thirst and urination.

Type 2

It is the most common type of diabetes and estimates show that over 90-95% of people are suffering from Type 2 diabetes. In United States alone, 3.6 million people are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 is often related with obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, aging, high-fat diets, ethnicity, physical inactivity, and family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes and even with older age. However, the most common reason can be obesity as 80% percent of the diagnosed patients are overweight.

In Type 2, the production of insulin by pancreas is enough, but the body doesn’t able to utilize this insulin to control the blood sugar levels for some ambiguous reasons. This phenomenon is medically referred to as insulin resistance. Gradually, the insulin level in blood decreases and the sugar level begin to rise in blood.

As compared to Type 1, Type 2 is considered more complicated. If diagnosed in its early stages, it can be fairly easy to treat it because at early stages insulin is still produced which decreases as the disease grow.


It is also referred to as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) which is mainly associated with the pregnant women as it occurs only when a woman is pregnant. This is a complex medical condition that often causes high birth weights, low blood sugar and jaundice.

Certainly, it is a disease that affects the women and that too at time when they are pregnant. Developing gestational diabetes increases the risks for a woman to develop Type 2 diabetes later in her life. Normally, 3 to 10% percent of pregnant women get affect by this disease. It is thought that several hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy cause resistance to insulin.

The women with this sort of diabetes normally have babies larger with low blood sugar, and jaundice. However, it is pretty much curable disease. Women need to control their blood glucose levels to minimize the potential risks associated with this diabetes type.

It has seen that the women whose diet is rich in fiber content have good defense against this diabetes. You can lessen the risk of getting this diabetes by adding 10 grams of dietary fiber in your regular diet.

MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of Youth)

Apart from above mention three major types, this is relatively rare type of diabetes which is usually caused by some sort of genetic defects in beta cell function. It normally develops in people less than 25 years of age.

Drug-Induced Diabetes

It is another rare type of diabetes which is often associated with some drugs or chemicals such as nicotinic acid (often used for lowering the high triglycerides and raise the levels of HDL cholesterol), gluco-corticoids (prednisone), thyroid hormone, thiazides (drugs used to control blood pressure), beta-adrenergic agonists (uses for asthma), and dilantin (used for anti-seizure treatment).


Types of Warrants

A warrant is a legal document that is signed by a judge and gives the authority to law enforcement officers to take necessary legal actions against someone. Warrants are of different types such as criminal warrants and civil warrants. A criminal warrant is a warrant which is issued to authorities with a view to secure evidences or detains suspects involved in criminal acts. A civil warrant on the other hand is a warrant which is used for several different purposes in the lawsuits like recovering personal property or trying to obtain monetary relief.

If we talk about the courts in United States, they are given enough authority to issue warrants to law enforcement agencies for a variety of purposes. Following are given some of the different types of warrants.

Felony Warrant

Felony warrant is a warrant which is issued by the court when the law enforcement has ample incriminating proof to detain a person found guilty of committing a felony. This sort of warrant remains valid until the suspected person is apprehended.

Capias Pro Fine Warrant

This is a type of warrant which is issued when a decision has been made by a court and court assigns a certain period of time to a suspect to fulfill the orders of the court such as to pay fine as compensation etc and the suspect is failed to fulfill the court’s order. In that case such warrants are issued to arrest that person.

Alias Warrant

Alias warrant is a warrant which is issued against a person who is unable to come into the court after being agreed to a plea bargain. These are the individuals who give pledge to appear in the court in next court date given by the court. If someone fails to uphold his pledge, the court can take legal action to issue this sort of warrant to arrest you.

Search Warrant

Search warrant is a type of warrant which is issued by the court to law enforcement authority so that they can conduct a search in a person’s premises with a view that a person is involved in some illegal activities or committed a crime a certain place.

Eviction Warrant

Eviction warrant is a warrant which is issued against a person who is not paying his/her rent or mortgage over a certain time span. In that case, the court issues a warrant against that person with a date and time on which the person should leave the property.

Apart from these warrants, federal and state warrants are other common warrants that are issued by the courts in United States. A federal warrant is a warrant issued by a federal judge or magistrate against a criminal case after hearing the federal lawyer or law enforcement authorities along with solid evidences. Similarly, state warrant is a warrant issued to apprehend an individual in the interest of a state.

Japanese Art

Types of Japanese Art

Japan has always been known for its rich traditional art. Japanese art is characterized by several different forms of art. Japan is known for its rich aesthetic art all along with the traces of some foreign influences in their art. The history of Japanese art if very long which has gone through several different phases such as at one time the Japanese art was under a heavy influence of foreign ideas, while at the other, the art form was purely based on their on thoughts and ideas without any foreign influence.

Japanese traditional art is quite rich as available in several different forms. Several different mediums of expression have been used by Japanese artists to express their ideas. Japanese traditional art is based on attractive Japanese paintings, the well-formed Japanese pottery, the Japanese Sculptures and the most distinct form that involve the arrangement of flowers, i.e. Ikebana and of course Origami, the art form related to folding paper. Following are given some of the different types of Japanese traditional art that has fascinating the people for years.

Japanese Traditional Art: Painting

Japanese paintings are known to be the oldest art form of Japanese traditional art. These paintings are unique and have some distinguished features. Japanese paintings not only portray the individual ideas of the Japanese artists but also show hint of foreign influences as well.

Over the course of Japanese history, Japanese traditional art had gone through several phases. One such phase in Japanese art was the introduction of wall paintings (murals) at some point in Nara period. Murals were commonly displayed on the walls of the Horyu-ji, a temple in Ikaruga, Nara. The paintings made by the artists follow the same painting styles as that of Chinese paintings and were usually based on religious beliefs and tales.

Over the course of history, Japanese art came across the images of Mandala which means ‘circle’ in Sanskrit. In Buddhism, the majority of the sacred art takes the form of Mandala. By the mid-Heian period, the traces of Chinese art styles cleared from the Japanese art.

It was somewhere in 14th century, when the influence of Zen monasteries became so prominent in the Japanese art. It was the time when Yuan and Sung dynasties introduced an Ink painting in Japanese art. During this time, the monochrome landscape paintings began to be popular. At the end of Muromachi period, the decorative art style became dominant over the ink paintings.

Somewhere around Azuchi-Momoyama period, the Japanese art viewed the introduction of gold and silver foil in the art forms. Several different styles were introduced in the Japanese art In Edo period. Monumental landscapes and wall paintings beautified the sliding doors and castles respectively.

During the Meiji period, the Japanese art became under the heavy influence of western art, however, the art critics in Japan done a great job in the revival of the Japanese art in its original form such as Nihonga art.

Presently, Japanese artists have integrated many new themes and abstract paintings in the Japanese art to keep pace with the present demands of the society. Nihonga is a form of Japanese art which is still presented in several different ways, especially with modern themes and mediums.

Japanese Traditional Art: Pottery and Sculpture

Previously, the pottery work in Japan was based on coil, adorned with rope patterns and all the work was done with hands. With a view to retain the native styles, many artists studied the traditional methods. During the course of Japanese history, several different styles developed and were crafted by Korean potters at first. Classic wares were excessively created during the 1980s and dragons and floral designs decorated with the Arita porcelain. The bizen ware crafted were reddish brown in color and strong as iron.

Japanese sculpture on the other hand is known for its own characteristic features with an emphasis on Buddhism. Different periods of history saw many different modified forms and styles of sculptures. Previously, metals and wood were the main ingredients used in crafting sculptures. However, clay was used to craft the images of dogu and haniwa. Hakuho art period is known for seeing some remarkable Buddhist sculptures.

As the time passed, new ideas and material has been introduced to craft different sculptures. An important progress was the flourishing of outdoor sculptures which are now used in the parks or other landscapes.


Bonsai which is pronounced as ‘bone-high’ is one of the oldest oriental horticultural art form of Japanese art. In both Chinese and Japanese, the term ‘bonsai’ means ‘tree in a pot’. This art form was first developed in Orient about 2,000 years ago. Presently too, the refined form of bonsai art is practiced in different parts of the world.

We cannot say that a planted tree in a pot is bonsai unless the tree is properly pruned, shaped and trimmed into a particular shape. Generally, bonsai is a form of Japanese art where a tree is customarily dwarfed by using Japanese art techniques. So, bonsai are the trees which require some special care in terms of pruning, shaping and training so as to keep it going for a longer period of time. It is said that a bonsai can live up to hundred years if cared properly. Bonsai can take some additional styles with some embellished forms.


Ikebana is a form of ancient Japanese art which is based on arrangement of flowers. Ikebana is an art form that based on some strict rules in order to attain harmony, balance and elegant arrangement of flowers. There are number of schools scattered all over the Japan that provide formal training to the people to learn essential techniques and principles regarding ikebana. It is worth mentioning that Ikebana is far different from other western flower arrangement techniques.


In Japanese language, the term ‘origami’ literally means paper folding. This is a form of Japanese art that involves paper folding. Origami is an art form of which formal schooling is available in Japan, where the students interested in this art are taught the different skills and arts to craft things or objects from folded paper. Not all the origami pieces are alike rather these can be different in their sizes and designs, i.e. they can range from simple folded boxes to complex objects or things formed by connecting different pieces of paper.

Japanese Tea Ceremony

It is an important event in the Japanese culture. Tea ceremony is celebrated in several different styles in different regions of Japan. The main feature of tea ceremony is that it never recurs in exactly the same way as it held once. Chashitsu is a room where tea ceremony is held. This room is positioned within the teahouse but away from residence and is only designed and decorated for this tea ceremony.

Japanese Poetry

If we go through the history of Japan, we will come to know that Japan has a very rich history of poetry. It was hundreds of years ago when the poetry was first introduced in this part of the world and over the time, it became an important part of Japanese culture. The poems which are written in Japanese are given the name ‘wakas’ meaning ‘Japanese Poems’. The Japanese poetry is poplar for its simplicity.

Japanese Calligraphy

It was in 17th century when calligraphy started becoming popular in Japan. Buddhism reached Japan from India where it travelled through China and Korea and finally reached Japan where many people among emperors converted to Buddhism. Earlier Buddhist scriptures were written in Chinese writing. It was believed that the Buddhist monk Kukai was the first Japanese calligrapher who rewrote the section of five paneled screen.

Japanese Martial Arts

It was in medieval period when martial arts began to gain popularity in Japan. Samurai class practiced martial arts. The term ‘martial’ means ‘fighting’ which means that martial art is an art of fighting. It helps people to defend the attacks from enemies.


In Japanese language, the term ‘ukiyo-e’ means the picture of the floating world. The phrase ‘floating world’ indirectly symbolizes the insular, carefree and pleasure seeking world of Japan particularly in Edo period. Ukiyo-E is basically an art that includes woodblock prints and watercolors commonly used between the 17th and 20th century. This art most of the time symbolizes the scenes or landscapes of city life, scenes from the pleasure seeking quarters of Japanese cities and also scenes from the history and culture.

Cross of St. Peter

Types of Crosses

A cross is known to have a great affiliation with the Christianity. It is a remarkable symbol of the Christianity which symbolizes the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Historically, cross was the instrument used to crucify the Jesus. Christians has a belief that the act of crucifying of Jesus was basically involved in his mission as this act of Jesus was to forgive humanity of sin. Cross has a significant role to play in Christianity and it has been altered during different times in history. It has been designed, decorated and formed to symbolize different sects of Christianity and different periods of Christian practices. There are certain different types of crosses which can help understanding the different sects and customs of Christianity. Let us have a look at them.


Crucifix is a type of cross conventionally used in the Catholic Church. Crucifix is a cross that characterizes Jesus Christ on the cross, dead and hanging. It symbolized the huge sacrifice of the Jesus Christ and his act of forgive humanity of sin. As we have said it is commonly used in Catholic Church so it has nothing to do in Protestant Churches because Protestants beliefs are on the resurrection of Christ than his death. In Europe, the Roman Catholic Churches are common and hence, crucifix is commonly used there.


Celtic crosses are the type of crosses which are more common in orthodox Christian’s religious sects. Celtic crosses are considered very ostentatious because of having loads of ornaments and beautification. Generally, the Christian icons or saints are displayed in the center of the Celtic crosses. These crosses are usually round (circular) in shape and known to have their origin in Latin customs. Most of the time, Celtic crosses are golden in color, adorned with bright colors.


A Canterbury cross is a type of cross which has its roots in Anglican and Episcopalian traditions and hence, are widely used in these churches. It is named after the place where it has its origin, i.e. Canterbury, United Kingdom. In the center of the cross, it has a square with equal lengths. Its triangular arms results in its circular shape. It can be seen on jewelry, church literature and priestly clothing.

Altar Cross

Altar cross is a type of cross which is used in almost all the denominations of Christianity in its modified forms but with a single purpose. It is normally put on the table where communion is going to take place. Altar cross symbolizes the sacrifice of Christ.

Cross of St. Peter

A cross of St. Peter is a type of inverted cross. Historically, St. Peter was crucified upside down as he sensed undeserving to die like a Christ. It is thought by Catholics that the pope is an inheritor of St. Peter, so this cross has a strong link with the papacy. For instance, it is commonly used on papal throne or in papal tombs. Satanists have recently been set aside this cross as an insignia for opposing or inverting Christianity.

Victor’s Cross

Victor’s cross is also known as conqueror’s cross is basically a Greek cross having first and last letter of Jesus and Christ on the top of it and Greek term ‘Nika’ meaning conqueror on the bottom. The top letters have a line that symbolizes that the letters are abbreviations.

Russian Orthodox Cross

The Russian Orthodox Cross is a type of cross that comprises of three bars. The top bar symbolize the ’INRI’ sign right over the Jesus head while the lowest bar is low and slanted. The exact purpose of the slanted bar is yet not known but it is thought that it may symbolize the St. Andrew cross (like a letter ‘X’). St. Andrew was the person who introduced the Christianity in Russia.


Types of Biotechnology

Since the evolution of primitive people, biotechnology has become much flourished by now. When the first human being realized that they could plant their own and new types of plants, crops, fruits and food, besides it they can breed their own animals with the help of biotechnology technique. With the help of this technique they can ferment the fruit juices into wine and milk could be converted into advance form like cheese or curd, or that beer could be made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops began the study of biotechnology. Once the first bakers got to know that they can make new and tastier food like soft, spongy bread instead of firm thin crackers, they were happy and behaving like amateur biotechnologists.

The term biotechnology raises many questions in the mind such as few think of producing new species of animals. Others might dream of numerous sources of drugs use for the therapy which doctors suggest as prescription of the therapy treatment. Still others think it as the possibility of growing new types of crops that are healthier for human beings. Literally, biotechnology is a term that is used to describe the process of using living organisms or products to alter human heath as well environment.

Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination (AI) is an insemination process wherein sperm is unnaturally positioned into a woman’s cervix or uterus. During artificial insemination, ovarian kits, ultrasounds and blood tests are used to monitor the menstrual cycles of the woman. For the implantation of semen (liquid) it is washed in the laboratories as a result of which the chances of fertilization are increased during the process of removal of unimportant, potentially damage causing chemicals. The semen is inserted into the woman, and if the procedure is successful, she becomes pregnant.

Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering is the use of different methods to operate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of cells to produce the biological products or to change the hereditary traits. Techniques used include using needles to insert DNA into an ovum, hybridomas (hybrid of cancer cells and of the cells that make the desired antibody) and the recombinant DNA, wherein the DNA of a desired gene is inserted into the DNA of bacterium, after that the bacterium multiplies itself, producing more of the desired gene. Other type is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in which DNA quickly replicate to create a huge analyzable sample. The process makes perfect copies of DNA fragments and is used in DNA fingerprinting.


Cloning is a term used to refer to the creation of offspring by means of asexual reproduction. With the help of cloning, we can make identical copies of animals such as sheep, Dolly. When this technique was introduced scientist made the dolly sheep with the help of cloning in which they replace the nucleus with the other one and in this way we get the identical copies of animal. But it considered as an immoral activity which yet considered unethical for the cloning of human beings. However, there are several plants which have been produced through cloning over centuries.

Simple Sentence

Types of Sentences

Many students find difficult to end the sentence with full stop for you people it may be surprising question but it is fact. And it is not easy to define a sentence as it is not that simple.  Everyone can’t define it in well manner on their own. In many dictionaries they tried to define a sentence that what is sentence basically. But there is some disagreement about this. For simple and common understanding, we may define it like, “A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense of understanding.” For instance, Sam is a bright boy. Judy runs on the beach everyday.

Simple Sentence

The most basic unit of construction of sentence is making the singular idea with the help of words in the form of group placed together especially when in writing the paragraph. There are many types of sentences they come in different verities of structures and lengths. And with the combination of different words a complex and long sentence forms. However, sentences can also be simply constructed and very brief. These sentences are known as simple sentences. A simple sentence is basically named that implies that a sentence of simple construction. It contains only one subject and one predicate. And this is lacking of any subordinate or dependent clauses in sentence. A simple sentence is the most basic type of sentence written and is often brief and to the point.

Compound Sentence

A compound sentence is the sentence which contains two independent parts and they are linked together. It is must to have linked word between two parts or clauses by some kind of conjunction to make the compound sentence. The compound sentence may take some kind of conjunction like correlative conjunction, a coordinating conjunction or even a semicolon functioning as a conjunction. In compound sentences a ‘comma’ is often used to help compensate the two independent clauses as well, although it is not usually needed grammatically.

Complex Sentence

Basically the complex sentence is made by minimum two clauses the one is dependent clause and the other one is independent clause. It is one in English but made with the help of two parts. The first one is dependent clause and it is also called the subordinate clause and it is connected by either a relative pronoun or subordinate conjunction. And the complex sentence may also be contrasted with a simple sentence, which has no dependent clause. And the other type of sentences includes the compound sentence. And the compound sentence need to have at least two independent clauses, and are the complex-compound sentences and they need to have at least two independent clauses, and at least one dependent clause.

Compound-Complex Sentences

A compound-Complex sentence is made up of two or more than two independent parts and on or more than one subordinate clause.

Just like the name implies, generally it is made up of a complex sentence and compound sentence. For instance, Rachael Ray explained how cookies are made, and we practiced her techniques at home.


Types of Knots

A knot is a method used to fasten or secure linear material by looping or tying a rope upon itself or to another rope or to another object or thing. A knot can comprise of a length one or several sections or pieces of rope, string, webbing, twine, chain, strap etc. Knots have been the subject of interest for many people as they are keen to know about the origins and usefulness of these knots on daily lives. Knots also have some role to play in mathematics in form of ‘knot theory’.

There are numerous varieties of knots which are used to perform several different tasks. Knots become handy in so many ways, especially when you need to bind the two ropes with each other or to bind the rope with any object or thing like cleat, ring, stake etc. Knots also become handy where you need to bind or compressed the objects. There are decorative knots which are tied to their selves in order to get some eye-catching decorative design. It is always vital to select the right kind of knot for right kind of job or task. You must need to develop this skill of choosing a right knot for the right task and for this you need to have some knowledge about the different types of knots. Following are given some of the different types of knots.


One of the oldest and more reliable type of knot that becomes handy when a fixed loop is required at the end of the rope. Bowline knot is popular because you can easily tie and untie it. Apart from being so useful and dependable knot, it has some drawbacks as well for it can become loose when not operating under a load and often the bight portion of the knot overturns.

Reef Knot

Reef knot is another old type of knot used where simple tying is needed make the rope or line around an object safe. Mostly, reef knot is used to tie two ropes mutually but this is not suggestible because of the shaky nature of the knot.

The simplest rule of thumb to form this knot is ‘right over left and left over right’. This knot is formed by binding the left-handed overhand knot and then a right-handed overhand knot, or the reverse.

Sheet Bend

Becket bend, weaver’s knot and weaver’s hitch are some of the other names for sheet bend. Sheet bend is a kind of knot which is used to tie two ropes together. If double sheet bend is used, it will give you a reliable tying lines having variable diameter or strictness. Like bowline, it is inclined to get loose when not operated under load.

Water Knot

Tape knot, ring bend, grass knot and overhand follow through are some of the other names used for water knot. Water knot is a kind of knot which is widely used for climbing by binding two ends of the webbing together such as a sling. Water knot is formed by tying overhand knot at one end preceded by the other end providing it in the opposite path.

Buntline Hitch

Buntline hitch is a kind of knot used to join a rope to an object. Buntline hitch is considered as a secure and reliable knot which is formed by looping the rope around the object. After looping the rope around the object, you need to make clove hitch around the rope’s upright part. Make sure that the two half hitches create the clove hitch are in the direction of the object instead of facing away.

Timber Hitch

The name may have given you some idea about this knot which is used to tie the rope to a log of wood. This knot is easy to tie as well as untie.

In order to form a timber hitch, first pass the rope around the piece of wood, then round the upright end of the rope. Next you need to wrap the rope around the loop three times and fasten the knot so as to make sure that the three turns grip the piece of wood tightly.

Rolling Hitch

Rolling hitch also known as Magnus hitch is a kind of knot which is used to join the rope to a rod, pole or to another rope. It is considered as a simple friction hitch designed for lengthwise pull along instead of at right angles. The main purpose of rolling hitch is to withstand the lengthwise motion.

Taut-Line Hitch

Taut-line hitch and rolling hitch are almost the same. However, taut-line hitch is known to be an adjustable loop knot which is used for the lines having tension. Taut-line hatch is extremely helpful in conditions where the length of a line require to be adjusted every so often to sustain the tension. A taut-line hitch is formed by binding the rolling hitch around the standing end of the rope. The tension is adjusted by sliding the hitch to a required length without being rebinding the knot.

Trucker’s Hitch

Trucker’s hitch is a kind of compound or self-binding knot widely used to tie or secure loads or objects on trucks or trailers. Trucker’s hitch is a knot that is formed by loops and turns in the rope itself. It is known by many different names and often used to sustain the tension in lines. Geoffrey Budworth is of the view that this sort of knot developed in the old days when horse drawn transportation was used by carters and hawkers to transport goods from one place to another.

Constrictor Knot

It is a kind of knot which is known to be the most helpful binding knot. Although, it is simple to tie, it is pretty hard to untie this knot once it is fastened. It is formed in a similar way as clove hitch, but the difference lies in a point where one end of the rope crossed under the other, hence creating an overhand knot under a riding turn. The double knot is much stronger with two riding turns.

Alpine Butterfly Knot

Alpine butterfly knot is a kind of knot which is used to make a firm loop in the middle of the rope. This sort of knot is formed in such a way that it bind in the bight without even accessing either of the ends. This sort of arrangement is extremely good when you are operating with a long climbing rope. This mid-line rigging knot is well proportioned and can be used for variety of tasks. For instance, if we talk about climbing rope, it can be used for traverse lines, anchors, restricting rope slings and so on.


It is a kind of friction hitch or knot that is utilized to place a loop of cord around the rope which can become handy in climbing, canyoneering, mountaineering, caving, rope rescue, and for arborists. The word Prusik is applied to both loops of cord and the hitch. In long term, this term can also be applied to any kind of friction hitch or device that is capable of grabbing a rope. The term Prusik is often misspelled by the people who confused it with prussic acid and spell it as Prussik or Prussick.

Figure-Eight Knot

Figure-eight knot is a knot that has its implementation both in sailing and rock climbing where this knot helps to retain the ropes from slipping out of retaining devices. One of the main features of this knot is that it can be untied easily even after it is firmly tightened.

Spanish Bowline

Spanish bowline is in fact a kind of double loop knot used to lift up a person. There is a distinction for conscious and unconscious persons. In case of conscious person, each of the two loops is put around each leg and the person holds the straight part of the rope. It seems as if this knot behaves like a makeshift Bosun’s chair. However, in case of unconscious person, one loop is put around the arm pits and the other is put around the knees of the person.

It is a bit difficult to tie this knot for a person who is new to it, but once you are mastered to it, you can tie it quickly. One other example of double loop knot is that is a fireman’s chair knot. However, this is not as good as Spanish bowline.

Monkey’s Fist

A monkey’s fist or a monkey’s paw is a kind of knot that resembles a small tightly closed fist or paw. This knot also resembles volleyball or an old-styled football in appearance. This knot was previously used as an anchor in rock climbing but is now outdated and risky as well. This knot is normally bound at the end of the rope so as to serve as a weight. This arrangement of knot makes it suitable for use as an extemporized weapon for sailors such as slungshot.

Versatackle Knot

It is a kind of knot comprised of two loops having rope crossed backward and forward between them. In its functions, it works pretty much like a Trucker’s hitch with slight differences.

Above mentioned are some of the different types of knots. It is always handy to have a good knowledge about some of the different types of knots because in our routine lives we come across several tasks where we need to tie a knot of particular type depending upon the job. Not all the knots work well in all situations so it is required to use certain knot according to the job rather than putting yourself in awkward or terrible situation.