Category Archives: Education & Reference

Metonymy

Types of Tropes

A trope is a figure of speech wherein a word or phrase is used in such a way that is different from its usual or regular meaning to create a particular mental image or effect. Metaphor and simile are the two most apt examples of trope and there are several others. In literature, this figure of speech is widely used in one way or another. We can see trope in fiction, film, poetry etc. Tropes are used extensively by writers and poets in their work as these act as a powerful tool for them to convey their meanings in an implied manner. Nowadays, tropes are also widely used in the advertisements and propaganda.

The term trope is derived from a Greek word ‘tropos’ meaning ‘to turn or twist’, so it does. Tropes are used where one wants to twist the original meaning of the word or phrase to imply some hidden meanings. For instance, a novelist gives a description of a woman in his novel as a woman with hairs shining like the sun.

Metonymy

It is a figure of speech which involves the symbolic word representation or referring to something by the name of something of which it is closely related. For instance, White House is used to refer to president of United States and Westminster is used to refer to the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Irony

Irony is a figure of speech in which the word or phrase expresses the meaning exactly opposite to its literal meaning. The term irony is derived from a Greek word that means dissimulation or feigned ignorance. Irony is largely used in literary works and considered as a rhetorical device. There are three major types of irony, i.e. verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Verbal irony is the irony where the conveyed meaning is completely contrasted to the literal meaning. Situational irony on the other hand is a type of irony in which the actions taken have an opposite effect from what is intended. Dramatic irony is the irony in which the characters exhibit their lack of capability to comprehend their own situation.

Metaphor

Metaphor is a figure of speech wherein a word or phrase denoting a thing or idea is implemented to any other word or phrase to hint some similarity between them or metaphor is a figure of speech to which describes one thing or idea in terms of other. For instance, she has a heart of stone or her eyes were glistening jewels.

Synecdoche

Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole or a whole is used to represent the part of something. Other used of the synecdoche include:

  • A specific class of thing is used to refer to a larger, more general class.
  • A general class of thing is used to refer to a smaller, more specific class.
  • A material is used to refer to an object composed of that material.
  • A container is used to refer to its contents.

Synecdoche is an important figure of speech which is widely used by the literary people especially to represent their characters in terms of some characteristic features rather than calling them by name like eyes or hairs etc.

Antanaclasis

It is a figure of speech in which a key word is repeated again and again where the same word implies for different or contrary meanings each time. For instance, if we do not hang together, we will hang separately.

The use of anatanaclasis is very effective to make some striking effect on the listeners or readers. It is used to attract the attention of the listeners or readers to think twice before making any conclusion about the statement.

Allegory

Allegory is a figurative mode of representation in which the meanings are conveyed in a way that they are completely opposite to the literal meaning. In fact, allegory is symbolic representation, figures or actions representing an idea or quality such as truth, evil death etc. In allegory, the characters are personified where they represent abstract ideas like charity, greed, envy and so on. If we talk about allegory as a literary device, it is considered as an extended form of metaphor. If we take it as an artistic device, it is taken as a visual symbolic representation.

Allegory generally conveys two meaning, i.e. one is its literal meaning and the other is symbolic meaning. It is not always necessary that each fiction with general application is an allegory. It may not be an allegory all the time.

Simple Sentence

Types of Sentences

Many students find difficult to end the sentence with full stop for you people it may be surprising question but it is fact. And it is not easy to define a sentence as it is not that simple.  Everyone can’t define it in well manner on their own. In many dictionaries they tried to define a sentence that what is sentence basically. But there is some disagreement about this. For simple and common understanding, we may define it like, “A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense of understanding.” For instance, Sam is a bright boy. Judy runs on the beach everyday.

Simple Sentence

The most basic unit of construction of sentence is making the singular idea with the help of words in the form of group placed together especially when in writing the paragraph. There are many types of sentences they come in different verities of structures and lengths. And with the combination of different words a complex and long sentence forms. However, sentences can also be simply constructed and very brief. These sentences are known as simple sentences. A simple sentence is basically named that implies that a sentence of simple construction. It contains only one subject and one predicate. And this is lacking of any subordinate or dependent clauses in sentence. A simple sentence is the most basic type of sentence written and is often brief and to the point.

Compound Sentence

A compound sentence is the sentence which contains two independent parts and they are linked together. It is must to have linked word between two parts or clauses by some kind of conjunction to make the compound sentence. The compound sentence may take some kind of conjunction like correlative conjunction, a coordinating conjunction or even a semicolon functioning as a conjunction. In compound sentences a ‘comma’ is often used to help compensate the two independent clauses as well, although it is not usually needed grammatically.

Complex Sentence

Basically the complex sentence is made by minimum two clauses the one is dependent clause and the other one is independent clause. It is one in English but made with the help of two parts. The first one is dependent clause and it is also called the subordinate clause and it is connected by either a relative pronoun or subordinate conjunction. And the complex sentence may also be contrasted with a simple sentence, which has no dependent clause. And the other type of sentences includes the compound sentence. And the compound sentence need to have at least two independent clauses, and are the complex-compound sentences and they need to have at least two independent clauses, and at least one dependent clause.

Compound-Complex Sentences

A compound-Complex sentence is made up of two or more than two independent parts and on or more than one subordinate clause.

Just like the name implies, generally it is made up of a complex sentence and compound sentence. For instance, Rachael Ray explained how cookies are made, and we practiced her techniques at home.

Fonts

Types of Fonts

Technically speaking, a writing font or font is the particular size and style of a set of letters or alphabets that are used in printing, etc Fonts are available in many different sizes and styles. Writing fonts are not a new phenomenon as these are used over years by the calligraphers or professional scribes or penmen in their assigned work. Recently, writing font has become a major part of the computer word processing software. With the development in the printing press, the writing fonts has become not only important part of it but also improved by great deal in styles.

Some of the different font styles are given below:

Script & Handwriting Fonts

Script fonts are the fonts which are devised to present some cursive handwriting or calligraphy. It is not always easy to read them so it is important to take due care while implementing them in your writings. Scripts fonts are widely used in announcements, logos and invitations. Handwriting fonts are the script fonts which are used to make your work appears like a handwritten. It is not necessary that the handwriting fonts are cursive as well. Brush Script and Edwardian Script are the most suitable examples of script fonts, while Freestyle Script and Comic Sans are the apt examples of handwriting fonts.

Serif

A serif is basically a short line top or bottom of some styles or in other words detailing on letters of alphabets, for instance, feet on a capital ‘A’. This font style is widely used in books, newspapers, magazines. Times New Roman, Georgia, Rockwell, Courier New and Garamond are some of the formal serif font styles.

Sans-serif

Sans-serif is another formal font style that is used commonly in the publications. The only different between the serif font and sans-serif font is that the latter doesn’t use detailing or short line on the letters or alphabets. For instance, the capital letter ‘A’ doesn’t have any feet. Arial, Franklin, Calibri, Comic Sans MS, Century Gothic and Gothic are some of the examples of sans-serif font.

Language

There are so many languages which have separate character fonts than those with letters derived from Latin. Language fonts are solely designed for those languages which have their own separate characters such as Arabic, Chinese, Japanese and Hebrew. Language fonts are specifically the fonts for languages other than English, French and Italian. It is important to mention here that there are certain variations found within the language fonts as well.

Calligraphic

Calligraphic fonts are basically the fonts used for decorative writing in formal invitations or announcements. The purpose of designing calligraphic font is to bring a sense of handwritten calligraphy written by professional scribes or calligraphers. The most suitable examples of calligraphic font style include Blackletter and Vivaldi.

Novelty

Novelty fonts or ornamental fonts are used solely with decorative intentions. These fonts are not used to right paragraphs or long scripts rather the use of these fonts is limited to large titles where the intention is to attract the attention of the people. In novelty fonts, pictures are used to create letters. Often a theme is involved in the selection of novelty fonts like bamboo, western, Christmas and so on. Jokerman and Bamboo are the two most apt examples of novelty fonts.

Symbols

There are few writing fonts which instead of using letters or alphabets make use of pictorial representations. There are different sort of symbol fonts which are used such as MS Reference series which include arrows, fractions and many other symbols to represent something.

Monospace Fonts

Monospace fonts are the fonts in which letters and symbols are of same width. For instance, the letter ‘I’ in lowercase has the same width as the letter ‘M’ in uppercase. Such fonts were most commonly used in the typewriters and in earlier computer types. Nowadays, the use of monospace fonts can be seen for computer programming, or certain other technical contents. Courier, Courier New and Monaco are some of the examples of monospace fonts.

Above mentioned are some of the most commonly used types of fonts. There are certain others which are used for certain situations and conditions.

Voting Ballots

Types of Voting Ballots

You will be surprised to know that the voting system was first developed 2,500 years ago when first votes were cast in ancient Greece. A system for casting a vote used at that time is presently known as Caucus. Nowadays, several different systems for vote casting are used all over the world. These voting systems have been devised by the governments or official bodies to encourage the participation of majority of the people in electing governing bodies for the country. Casting a vote is a right of every citizen and it is a sole responsibility of every citizen to use this right in an effective way to keep the government from dictatorship.

Vote is a big responsibility on behalf of every citizen and using it in a right way is all important. Vote is your power through which you choose your elected members of the state. Always vote the people you think will best serve the nation as well as work hard in making the state proper. Democracy, representative legislators, republican forms are all different types of government and all are formed when you cast your vote.

Following are given some of the different types of voting ballots:

Paper Ballots

It is a kind of uniform official ballots wherein a slip of paper containing the printed names of all the candidates and issues is used to mark your vote. Each and every voter is given with that stock weight and he/she marks his/her candidate name or issue in private and inserts that slip into the sealed ballot box.

The paper balloting system was first introduced in 1856 in the Australian state of Victoria. Later, it was introduced on other states of Australia as well. Since, then paper balloting is often referred to as ‘Australian ballot’. In 1889, paper ballot was first introduced in the American state of New York.

During the 1996, the paper ballots were used by 1.7% of the registered American voters. Paper ballot is still used as a basic voting system in rural areas and communities. It is also used in for absentee ballots in certain other states.

Absentee ballot

It is a kind of voting system where a vote is cast by the voter who is not willing or not able to cast his/her vote at any voting station. There are several different methods used to implement absentee ballot. In many countries, this voting system is appreciated in a view to increase the voter turnout. However, there are many countries where a solid reason is required to allow the voter to cast his/her vote in an absentee ballot.

Provisional ballot

When there is ambiguity in the eligibility of a voter in regard to record a vote, provisional ballot system is used. Following are the conditions to cast a provisional ballot:

  • When a voter declines to show his/her photo ID where it is mandatory.
  • When the name of the voter is not mentioned in the electoral roll for particular territory.
  • The registration of a voter has inaccurate or faulty information like invalid address or wrong name.
  • It appears that the voter has already cast his/her vote.

The voter’s vote is considered only when the eligibility of the voter is proved or verified. Normally, a provisional ballot is not considered for at least 7-10days past the election date. So, unless and until the eligibility is not verified, his/her vote doesn’t have any impact on the election process.

Affidavit Ballot

Affidavit ballots are closely associated with provisional ballots, therefore often referred to as affidavit ballots. This is used in the United States when a voter’s right to cast a vote is ambiguous.

A right to record a provisional ballot is guaranteed by the Help America Vote Act 2002. An affidavit is provided by the voter to claim that he/she has the right to vote and record his vote by filling up a ballot and enclosed it in an envelope. Later, the Board of Elections verifies the eligibility of the voter and count his/her vote if found eligible.

Misconceptions

People often have misconception that their vote may not be counted. This is totally a wrong belief, each and every vote matters a lot and your vote has the same power as that of the other voters in your community or district.

Maps

Types of Maps

A map can be defined in so many ways such as, a geographic diagram or depiction of an area, or a drawing or a plan of the earth’s surface showing distances, directions and positions. Maps are around since ages and helping the mankind since there was no technology and the only way to find the directions was a piece of paper showing the rough estimate of the position and distances of places. However, the maps we have today are more refined and authentic. With the evolution of technology, more advanced ways have been devised to guide or help the people to reach their destinations. One such example is GPS, an acronym for Global Positioning System.  This system has gain a lot of popularity in the recent few years and great numbers of people are relying on this to help locate their directions.

Maps are an integral part of our life. These are not only used on major platforms but also helpful in our daily life. For instance, if you are visiting a large shopping complex, you will be provided a map of the mall on the entrance to help locate different areas easily. There are several types of maps which are designed for various situations and needs. Let us a brief look at some of the types of maps in the coming lines.

Different Kinds of Maps and Their Uses

Following are given different types of maps:

Climate Maps or Weather Maps

Climatic maps or weather maps are far different than those we used to locate streets, places or directions. These are solely used to forecast the weather. These maps help to determine the weather patterns related to a certain area or region. The information these maps give to us is recorded and used for different means. These maps basically records the changing happens in temperature, seasonal variations, precipitation and much more. This collected information is then observed on the basis of which the weather forecast centers predict the weather for next coming days. All this information is collected through different resources such as radars, satellite images etc. these weather or climatic maps also help to detect the on coming storms or severe weather conditions.

Physical Maps

Physical maps are the maps that are used to describe several physical aspects of a place or area such as depicting different land formations, i.e. mountains, plains, valleys, deserts or water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas, oceans and so on. Different ways are used to describe certain things like lines are used to describe the elevations of mountains, blue color indicates the water bodies. Besides these, shading patterns spots tints of different colors are used to indicate different things.

Political Maps

These maps are used to characterize several different countries along with the depiction of cities, state divisions, capitals, major cities, etc.

Economic or Resource Maps

Economic or resource maps are the maps which are used to depict the economic or natural resources of a particular country or region. Variety of symbols is used to denote different types of resources. For instance, a symbol of orange on the map regarding any particular region suggests that the region is known for the production of oranges, while if a wheat symbol is given on any state or region implies that the region is rich in wheat production. Each of the different resource has its own particular symbol which distinguishes it from other resources. If a state or region is known for more than one resource all the symbols are mentioned on the map.

Road Maps

As the name suggests, these maps represent the directions of the roads or streets of any particular place on the map. These maps are extremely important especially for the people who are not familiar with the place such as tourists. With the help of road maps, one can easily reach his/her destination without wandering aimlessly here and there.

Topographic Maps

Topographic maps are the maps which basically represent the contour lines depicting the shape and elevation of the land. What these maps bring to us is representing the shape and elevation of the land with the help of lines. For instance, if the land is a plain area then the lines are far apart, while if the land is steep, the lines will be close to each other. These maps are normally used by the constructors who are planning to construct buildings or roads. Geologists also make use of these maps to gather data.

These are some of the different types of maps. Most of the people rarely realize the importance of maps in their lives but they certainly have a key role in their lives. Surely, maps are integral part of our lives which become handy during different times in our lives.

Courts

Types of Courts

If you want to avoid wastage of time and exasperation, it is essential to have a good knowhow about the court system while seeking information on a certain case or topic related to the court. Primarily, two court systems are broadly used in Untied States, i.e. State and Federal. These are the two broad court systems divided into different types which are further divided into subtypes and domains. This article is an attempt to give you a brief account about the court systems and its types.

The Federal Court System, the Judicial Branch in United States is directed by US Supreme Court. There are 9 different types of courts that are included in this court system. Apart from these, ninety-four districts, twelve regional circuits and numerous supporting agencies are also part of Federal Court System.

It is important to bear this thing in mind that both the State Court Systems widely differs from one another. Primarily, the majority of the court systems composed of three major types such trial, intermediate appellate and the highest state court. It is important to note here that different states have their own particular court systems which cannot be applied to other states or territories.

Different Types of State Courts

We have mentioned above that the courts are normally composed of three types, i.e. trial, intermediate appellate and the highest state court. Trial courts are the courts wherein the first hearings of any case are held, no matter criminal or civil it may be. Then, next comes the intermediate appellate courts which conduct the hearing for the cases either in which law was sustained by the trial courts or the laws were obeyed in search of it, e.g. evidence protocols, warrants, just cause, etc. The highest court also known as the court of last resort comes in last place. These courts are considered as the last place for appeals and also the first place for the matters related to the state constitution, matters related to state bodies or the whole state, elections and so on. If the system allows, cases can be transferred from state system to federal state system.

The trial courts we are talking about are divided into two types, i.e. general jurisdiction and limited jurisdiction. It is assumed that the courts of limited jurisdiction are formed with a view to ease off the case burdens in favor of general courts. Another important point is about the courts of limited jurisdictions is to provide a setting to deal with different types of law. The courts of limited jurisdiction usually situate in or nearby the general courts locations.

Following are given the list of courts covered by the limited jurisdiction courts:

  • Probate Courts: Probate courts are the courts which deals with the matter of establishment of the last will and testament. The job of this court is to make sure that the wishes and will of the decedent is executed according to the law or if no will is there, the property or estate is distributed lawfully among the decedent’s family members.

  • Family Courts: As the name suggests, these courts are meant to deal with the cases regarding marriage, adoption, alimony, divorce, child support and child custody, annulments and other domestic matters.
  • Traffic Courts: Traffic courts are there to deal with the cases regarding violence of traffic laws.
  • Juvenile Courts: These are the courts which are meant to deal with the legal cases involved young people, i.e. aged 18 to 21.
  • Small Claims Courts: These are the courts which are used by the litigants to resolve their disputes or quarrels regarding money and that too of small amount, to say less than $5,000.
  • Municipal Courts: All the matters regarding felonies against city ordinances like peace disturbance, parking, noise violations, public intoxication and so on are dealt by municipal courts.

Federal Jurisdiction

The United States Constitution defines the jurisdiction of federal courts in Article III, Section 2, according to which the courts of federal jurisdiction conduct the hearing of only two types of cases, i.e.

  1. 1. Diversity of Citizenship

The first type of cases on which the federal court has the authority to conduct hearing is one where the parties belong to two different states and the matter of money under consideration surpasses the legal limit assigned by the federal law, presently $75,000. Such types of cases are handled under state laws because these disputes come under the section of state law.

  1. 2. Federal Question

The second type of cases that a federal court has the authority to hear is the one that come under the section of US Constitution, laws of the United States, and the pacts prepared under the US authorities.

Verb

Types of Verb

Normally, people define verb as a part of speech used to describe the state of being, an action or occurrence. It is rather easy to define verb in term of what role it plays than what it actually is. For instance, a word ‘same’ serve both as a ‘noun’ and a ‘verb’. Similarly, a single verb can be used in a numerous ways according to the situation and need.

Verb has an important role to play in the part of speech. It has some different types based on the function it plays. Let us have a look on some of the different types of verbs used in English Language.

Meaning of Verb

A verb is generally very easy to define as we have seen the definition already. It is a word that is used according to the situation to represent the action that is taking place or occurrence of anything or even a state of something at particular event of time. A verb can be used in different ways in a sentence in terms of voice, tense, mood, and aspect. It is verb that helps us to distinguish the predicate part of the sentence from the subject part. A predicate is a part of sentence containing a verb that makes the statement about the subject.

Different Types of Verb

There are two major categories of verb. The first category of the verb deals with the job it performs in the sentence and is known as syntactically division of verbs. The different types of the verb fall under this category are finite, non-finite and auxiliary or helping verbs. The second category is known as morphological division of verbs that deals with formation of the verbs. The different types covered under this category are regular and irregular verbs, compound verbs and phrasal verbs.

Syntactical Division of Verbs

Finite Verbs

Finite verbs are the verbs which are used in accordance with pronouns such as he, she, they, we, you etc. Finite verbs are the verbs which have the limited power in respect to certain pronouns. Finite verbs are further subdivided into linking verb, transitive and intransitive verbs.

Non-Finite Verbs

Non-finite verbs are the verbs which don’t modify in respect to other words. These verbs don’t influenced by any word in the sentences. Infinitives, gerunds and participles are part of non-finite verbs.

Auxiliary Verb or Helping Verb

An auxiliary verb or more commonly a helping verb is a verb that is placed before the main verb in the sentences. Auxiliary verb used in the sentence can change the speaker’s viewpoint in respect to the actions and/or tense of action. There are two major classes of auxiliary verb, i.e. primary auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries.

Morphological Division of Verbs

Regular Verbs

Regular verbs are the verbs which are quite easy to form, i.e. the different forms of verb are formed by simply adding –d or –ed at the end of the word.

Irregular Verbs

Irregular verbs are the verbs which are not easy to form like regular verbs. For example, if we take verb sing, its past form are formed as sang and sung instead of adding –ed at the end.

Compound Verbs

Commonly called as complex predicate and are usually composed of multi-words taken as single verb.

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs are the verbs which are formed from combing a preposition with a verb; an adverb and a verb and even a verb added to both preposition and adverbs.

There are certain other forms of the verb which include light verb, raising verb and reflexive verb.

Polygon

Types of Polygon

In traditional geometry, polygon is a flat shape that is normally 2-dimensional. Polygons are made up of straight lines which are connected with each other or in simple words polygon is a flat shape that is enclosed by straight line segments. These segments are referred to as its edges or sides and where these segments come into contact with each other are known as its vertices or corners. The interior of the polygon is often referred to as its body.

The term polygon is derived from Greek ????? (polús) which means “much”, “many” and ????? (g?nía) which means “corner” or “angle”. Nowadays, polygon is often studied in terms of its sides.

To qualify as a polygon, it is necessary that the angle made by connecting two edges must not be 180°. Following are given some of the different types of polygon.

Triangle

A triangle is a type of polygon having three corners (vertices) and three sides (edges) which are line segments and not the curved lines. Normally, a triangle is symbolized as  ABC (three vertices).

Quadrilateral

A quadrilateral is a type of polygon having four sides or edges and four corners or vertices. The term quadrilateral is a combination of two terms, i.e. ‘quad’ which means ‘four’ and ‘lateral’ which means ‘of sides’. Quadrilateral can be of two types: simple quadrilateral and complex quadrilateral. The former can be either concave or convex and are not self-intersecting, while the latter are self intersecting and are often referred to as crossed.

Pentagon

Pentagon is derived from a Greek word ‘pente’ which means five. Geometrically, a pentagon is a type of polygon having five sides or edges and five corners or vertices. It can either be not self- intersecting (simple) or self intersecting such as a pentagram. All the internal five angles have a sum equal to 540°.

Hexagon

The term hexagon is taken from Greek ?? hex, ‘six’ which means six. A hexagon is a geometrical shape having six sides or edges and six corners or vertices. The sum of internal angles for hexagon is 720°. Its Schläfli symbol is {6}.

Heptagon

It is a geometrical shape having seven sides or edges and seven vertices. It has a Schläfli symbol {7}. In a regular heptagon, the sum of measure of all the angles is 128.5714286° and the sides or edges of the regular heptagon meet at an angle of 5?/7.

Octagon

An octagon is a type of polygon having eight sides and eight corners. It has a Schläfli symbol {8}. A regular octagon usually has all the eight sides of equal length and internal angles also equal. Each internal angle of octagon measures 135° and hence, the sum of measure of all the internal angles of octagon is 1080°.

Nonagon

It is a type of polygon having nine sides and nine corners. The term nonagon is derived from the Latin word ‘nonus’ which means ‘nine’ and ‘gonon’ means ‘sides’. This term was first coined in French in 16th century as nonogone and later in English in 17th century. Nonagon is also known as enneagon which is derived from Greek word enneagonon. ?????, means ‘nine’ plus ?????, from ?????, which means ‘corner’.

Decagon

Decagon is a geometrical shape having ten sides or edges and ten corners or vertices. A regular decagon has all its ten sides of equal length with an internal angle measure as 144°. It has a Schläfli symbol {10}.

Dodecagon

Dodecagon is a kind of polygon having twelve sides or edges and twelve corners or vertices. A regular dodecagon is a geometrical shape with a sum of measure of all the sides and angles equal. An internal angle of a dodecagon is of 150°. It has a Schläfli symbol {12}.

Nouns

Types of Nouns

A noun is a part of speech, i.e. very well known in English. Normally people have memorized it as “a noun is a name of a person, place or a thing,” here thing also refers to animal. There are different types of noun that makes a sentence. All these different types have different rules. Let us start with the types of noun

Different Types of Nouns

There are different types of nouns that are used in grammar and composition in English. They are different from each other on the basis of their character and nature.

In this article we will understand these types of nouns with examples and explanations.

Types of Nouns: Proper Nouns

Proper nouns are those nouns which are “one and only”. If the proper noun is the name of a very unique and important thing, it will be prefixed by “the”. In the following statements, the words in italics are the proper nouns.

  • Damien is the star football player in the school.
  • Washington D.C. is the capital of the country.
  • The Sun gives us light and warmth for survival.

In these statements, the first statement contains a proper noun that is the name of a person. The second statement contains a proper noun that is the name of a place. The third statement contains a proper noun that is the name of a thing.

Types of Nouns: Common Nouns

Common nouns are names of common things which are not special or one and only. A common noun is mostly prefixed with “a”. In the following statements, the words in italics are the Common nouns.

  • A pen is mightier than a sword.
  • He is just another regular boy.
  • We went to the park, on a windy summer day.

In the first statement, the common nouns are inanimate things. In the second statement the common noun is a boy which can be any boy. The third statement has the word “day” as a common noun. This is again due to the absence of specifications and the possibility that there could be many days like that one.

Types of Nouns: Collective Nouns

Collective nouns are those that are used to refer a group of certain objects, or things. Different objects, animals, people, and things have different terms as a group. Hence, it is important to know these. In the following statements, the words in italics are the Collective nouns.

  • A pride of lions.
  • A mob of people.
  • A bouquet of flowers.

The first statement, refers to a group of an animal; lions. Different animals’ groups have different names, like a HERD of cows, etc. The second statement contains a word used to describe a group of people. Different situations need the use of different words for the same. The third statement refers to a group of flowers. Different things have different words to explain them as a group. However, a group of flowers is best expressed as a bouquet.

Types of Nouns: Abstract Nouns

Abstract nouns are names of those things which are unseen but can be felt like emotions, ideas and concepts. These are words that cannot be described or calculated. In the following statements, the words in italics are the Abstract nouns.

  • I think I am falling in Love.
  • The epiphany was overwhelming.
  • It was his stroke of genius.

In the first statement, the feeling of love is the noun. The second statement shows the idea of an epiphany as an abstract noun. The third statement contains the concept of genius as the noun.

Types of Nouns: Concrete Noun

Concrete nouns are those that can be seen, felt and measured. The concept of concrete nouns is the opposite of abstract nouns. In fact, All the nouns those are not abstract are concrete nouns. In the following statements, the words in italics are the concrete nouns.

  • Damien is the star football player in the school.
  • A pen is mightier than a sword.
  • A pride of lions.

In the first statement, the proper noun is a concrete noun also as it is a person that is existent. In the second statement, the concrete nouns are common nouns also. Both objects can be touched and felt. The third statement contains a concrete noun that is a collective noun also describing a group of animals that can be seen, heard, smelt, touched etc.

Types of Nouns: Countable Nouns

Countable nouns are those that show its numerical status whether it is single or plural. In the following statement, the words in italics are the countable nouns.

  • The guys were meeting at the gym.

In the statement, the first noun is in plural state which refers to the fact that there is more than one guy subject to the action. The second noun is singular in state which shows that there is only one gym subject to the action.

Types of Nouns: Mass Noun

Mass nouns are the words which are in abundance but uncountable and not in numerical order. The words in italics are the mass nouns.

  • We need to get them some water.
  • The wood was burning.
  • The information was incomplete

The nouns in all the statements refuse to let the reader know if they are singular or plural.

Types of Nouns: Pronouns

They are words that replace nouns in order to avoid repetition in a statement or conversation. They are on the basis of gender.

  • HE is the pronoun used for a male noun.
  • SHE is the pronoun used for a female noun.
  • IT is the pronouns used for a thing that one does not know the gender of, or that does not have a definite gender.
  • THEY is a pronoun used for plural nouns.
  • THIS is a pronoun used for a singular noun that is in the vicinity.
  • THESE is the pronoun used for plural nouns in the vicinity.
  • THAT is the pronoun used for a singular noun that is not around.
  • THOSE is the pronoun used for a plural noun that is not around.
Christianity

Types of Religions

The term religion is defined as, “the system of faith that is based on the belief in the existence of a particular god or gods.” The development of religion has taken different forms in different cultures during the course of the history. Religion is something that gives meaning and purpose to the lives of people. Religion is a source that grants them appreciation of the past, insight of the present and hope for the future. There are several different kinds of religion with a good number of followers found in different parts of the world. Let us have a look on some of the different types.

Christianity

Christianity is one of the biggest religions with more than two billion followers all over the world. Christianity is the belief that based on God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit. The Bible is the Holy Book of Christianity. It is of Abraham origin. It is a religion that is all about the life and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Jesus was believed to be born in the Holy Land of Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. The birth of Jesus was in fact the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies about a Messiah who will suppose to save the Jewish people. Jesus began preaching at the age of 30 by means of parables and also performed miracles. He was helped by his twelve disciples. As soon as Jesus declared that He spoke to the God, the officials became infuriate and tortured Him. Later, He was crucified and His body was put in a Tomb. However, the Tomb was found empty after three days. It is believed that the God has resurrected Him.

Atheism

The term ‘atheism’ is derived from a Greek word called ‘atheos’ which means ‘without god’. Hence, atheism is the religion that rejects the belief in the existence of deities, God, and other Spiritual beings. The two major promoters of the atheism were the Greek and Roman philosophers named Epicurus Democritus and Lucretius respectively. There was no evidence in the history where atheism rejects the existence of gods rather it supported the view that gods had nothing to do with the life of human beings.

Islam

Islam is known to be the second largest religion after Christianity with over one billion followers all over the world. The followers of Islamic religion are called Muslims. There are different Islamic religious groups all connected by their faith. Islam preaches that there is only one God, Allah and the Holy Quran is known as the scripture of Islam. Sunni and Shia are the two major branches of the Islamic religion.

Baha’i

It was in 1844 when a young man of Iranian origin, introduced himself as B b predicted that a messenger will be soon sent to us by God as last prophet or manifestation of God from the line of Moses, Muhammad and Jesus. In 1863, the Baha’i faith was founded by the Bah’U’ll h considered as the latest prophet. He was born in 1817 in a wealthy family and given a name Mirza Hussein Ali. The followers of Baha’i religion were considered the descendants of B b, i.e. the people who believed in the prediction of B b.

Buddhism

Buddhism is another religion that has over 376 million followers all across the world. It is the religion that is based on the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama or Buddha. The followers of this religion are called Buddhist. Buddhism stresses on the fact that the elements of life are interconnected and hence, require empathy. Buddhism comprises of several different sects and doesn’t believe on one God.

Candomble

You might have heard this for the first time. This is a religion of African-Brazilian origin with almost two million followers. It is basically a syncretism which means that it is a combination of different religions, philosophies or ideas. However, the central beliefs are based on classical African beliefs of Yoruba, Fon and Bantu. The term Candomble literally means ‘dance in honor of the gods’. Due to this fact, dance and music has a key role to play in this religion. Elements of Catholicism are very prominent in the religion. In Candomble, the God or Oludumare is the sole divine being. Deities are given the name Orixas that serve the God. There is no Holy Scripture in this religion.

Hinduism

Hinduism is considered as one of the oldest religions of the world with over 900 million followers. Out of these 900 million followers, 80% make the population of India and are called Hindu. Hinduism is a religion that doesn’t teach a single doctrine, however, admits One God and everlasting soul called Brahman.

Jehovah’s Witnesses

These are considered the Christian-based religious sect according to which majority of the churches of Christianity has lost their way. The 6.5 million members of this religious denomination visit neighborhoods and knock on door to door to inspire people about their religion and pull the converts towards their religion. Jehovah’s witnesses have their own New Translation of the Holy Scriptures, i.e. Bible which is found in seventy different languages.

Jainism

Jainism is another ancient religion according to which the happiness can only be achieved if you live a naïve or innocuous life. Jainism doesn’t emphasis on believing any god but on oneself. It is also known as a self-help religious doctrine. Jainism has two broad branches: The Digambara (sky clad) and The Svetambara (white clad). His religion has over 4.2 million followers and most of them belong to India.

Judaism

It is considered as one of the oldest monotheistic religions and also considered first of the three Abrahamic religions, i.e. Christianity and Islam. There are more than 12 million people all over the world who follow this religion. Judaists are most common in United States and Israel. The holy book of the Judaism is known as Torah or Hebrew Bible.

Mormonism

The first Mormon Church was built in United States somewhere in the 19th century. This church is also referred to as ‘The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or The Church of Jesus Church.’ Mormonism is a Christian-based religious sect which is far different than other sects of Christianity. Mormons believe that except them all the other churches have gone strayed. Mormonism is a religious sect with over 12 million members all across the world.

Paganism

Paganism is the religion that is known to be a modern religious tradition and is not part of any of the world’s main religion. In past, this title is given to the people who don’t believe on Christianity. Paganism is found in several different types.

Rastafari

It is a kind of new concept that is based on traditional African beliefs. The followers of this religion are often referred to as Rastafarians, Dreads, Rastas, Dreadlocks, Sufferers, and Locksmen. This black oriented religion is often associated with the reggae music which became popular in 1970s. Rastafarians are about one million in number and are found in Japan, New Zealand and in surrounding regions.

Santeria

This religion is of Afro-Caribbean origin and Cuban slave tribe is the founder of this religion. Santeria is also referred to as La Regla Lucuni and the Rule of Osho. The term Santeria means ‘the worship of saints’. Santeria has many things common with Christianity. The exact numbers of followers are yet not known.

Shinto

Shinto is known to be a very old Japanese religion established on the spiritual beliefs known as Kami. In Shinto religion there is no concept of existence of gods rather it solely emphasizes on improving the human communication with Kami by means of rituals.

Sikhism

Sikhism is also a type of monotheistic religion with over 20 million followers worldwide. However, majority of the Sikhs (follower of Sikhism) are the residents of India. The scripture in Sikhism is known as Guru Granth Sahib.

Taoism

Taoism or Daoism is an old religion which is established on several Chinese doctrines such as philosophies, religions and customs. The Tao is considered as the central theme of Taoism. The Tao in Chinese philosophy is a universal principle of all the things. The followers of Taoism are called Taoists.

Above mentioned are some of the different religions found in different parts of the world. Religion is a kind of faith and stronger is your faith more broadly you can perceive different aspects of life.