Since the evolution of primitive people, biotechnology has become much flourished by now. When the first human being realized that they could plant their own and new types of plants, crops, fruits and food, besides it they can breed their own animals with the help of biotechnology technique. With the help of this technique they can ferment the fruit juices into wine and milk could be converted into advance form like cheese or curd, or that beer could be made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops began the study of biotechnology. Once the first bakers got to know that they can make new and tastier food like soft, spongy bread instead of firm thin crackers, they were happy and behaving like amateur biotechnologists.
The term biotechnology raises many questions in the mind such as few think of producing new species of animals. Others might dream of numerous sources of drugs use for the therapy which doctors suggest as prescription of the therapy treatment. Still others think it as the possibility of growing new types of crops that are healthier for human beings. Literally, biotechnology is a term that is used to describe the process of using living organisms or products to alter human heath as well environment.
Artificial insemination (AI) is an insemination process wherein sperm is unnaturally positioned into a woman’s cervix or uterus. During artificial insemination, ovarian kits, ultrasounds and blood tests are used to monitor the menstrual cycles of the woman. For the implantation of semen (liquid) it is washed in the laboratories as a result of which the chances of fertilization are increased during the process of removal of unimportant, potentially damage causing chemicals. The semen is inserted into the woman, and if the procedure is successful, she becomes pregnant.
Genetic engineering is the use of different methods to operate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of cells to produce the biological products or to change the hereditary traits. Techniques used include using needles to insert DNA into an ovum, hybridomas (hybrid of cancer cells and of the cells that make the desired antibody) and the recombinant DNA, wherein the DNA of a desired gene is inserted into the DNA of bacterium, after that the bacterium multiplies itself, producing more of the desired gene. Other type is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in which DNA quickly replicate to create a huge analyzable sample. The process makes perfect copies of DNA fragments and is used in DNA fingerprinting.
Cloning is a term used to refer to the creation of offspring by means of asexual reproduction. With the help of cloning, we can make identical copies of animals such as sheep, Dolly. When this technique was introduced scientist made the dolly sheep with the help of cloning in which they replace the nucleus with the other one and in this way we get the identical copies of animal. But it considered as an immoral activity which yet considered unethical for the cloning of human beings. However, there are several plants which have been produced through cloning over centuries.