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Cross of St. Peter

Types of Crosses

A cross is known to have a great affiliation with the Christianity. It is a remarkable symbol of the Christianity which symbolizes the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Historically, cross was the instrument used to crucify the Jesus. Christians has a belief that the act of crucifying of Jesus was basically involved in his mission as this act of Jesus was to forgive humanity of sin. Cross has a significant role to play in Christianity and it has been altered during different times in history. It has been designed, decorated and formed to symbolize different sects of Christianity and different periods of Christian practices. There are certain different types of crosses which can help understanding the different sects and customs of Christianity. Let us have a look at them.

Crucifix

Crucifix is a type of cross conventionally used in the Catholic Church. Crucifix is a cross that characterizes Jesus Christ on the cross, dead and hanging. It symbolized the huge sacrifice of the Jesus Christ and his act of forgive humanity of sin. As we have said it is commonly used in Catholic Church so it has nothing to do in Protestant Churches because Protestants beliefs are on the resurrection of Christ than his death. In Europe, the Roman Catholic Churches are common and hence, crucifix is commonly used there.

Celtic

Celtic crosses are the type of crosses which are more common in orthodox Christian’s religious sects. Celtic crosses are considered very ostentatious because of having loads of ornaments and beautification. Generally, the Christian icons or saints are displayed in the center of the Celtic crosses. These crosses are usually round (circular) in shape and known to have their origin in Latin customs. Most of the time, Celtic crosses are golden in color, adorned with bright colors.

Canterbury

A Canterbury cross is a type of cross which has its roots in Anglican and Episcopalian traditions and hence, are widely used in these churches. It is named after the place where it has its origin, i.e. Canterbury, United Kingdom. In the center of the cross, it has a square with equal lengths. Its triangular arms results in its circular shape. It can be seen on jewelry, church literature and priestly clothing.

Altar Cross

Altar cross is a type of cross which is used in almost all the denominations of Christianity in its modified forms but with a single purpose. It is normally put on the table where communion is going to take place. Altar cross symbolizes the sacrifice of Christ.

Cross of St. Peter

A cross of St. Peter is a type of inverted cross. Historically, St. Peter was crucified upside down as he sensed undeserving to die like a Christ. It is thought by Catholics that the pope is an inheritor of St. Peter, so this cross has a strong link with the papacy. For instance, it is commonly used on papal throne or in papal tombs. Satanists have recently been set aside this cross as an insignia for opposing or inverting Christianity.

Victor’s Cross

Victor’s cross is also known as conqueror’s cross is basically a Greek cross having first and last letter of Jesus and Christ on the top of it and Greek term ‘Nika’ meaning conqueror on the bottom. The top letters have a line that symbolizes that the letters are abbreviations.

Russian Orthodox Cross

The Russian Orthodox Cross is a type of cross that comprises of three bars. The top bar symbolize the ’INRI’ sign right over the Jesus head while the lowest bar is low and slanted. The exact purpose of the slanted bar is yet not known but it is thought that it may symbolize the St. Andrew cross (like a letter ‘X’). St. Andrew was the person who introduced the Christianity in Russia.

Rocks

Types of Rocks

Rocks are the hard solid masses that form the part of the surface of earth or other planets. Rocks are of different types. Some of the different types of rocks are given below.

Igneous Type of Rocks

Cooling of magma is took place by exothermic process. While the process is underway, a phase comes when liquid starts converting into solid state which is having a disposition of crystalline. This is called ‘Igneous Rocks’. The rock which is formed on the surface of earth as a result of cold atmosphere is usually igneous rocks. When the magma reaches the surface of the earth and results in a rock formation, the rock is called ‘basalt’, while the magma which is not able to reach the surface of the earth is called ‘gabbro’. Although, both basalt and gabbro have the same composition, they both differ in textures. Intermediate magma results into andesite and diorite and Felsic magma results into granite and rhyolite. Following are given the classification of igneous rocks based on composition:

  • Felsic: These comprise of potash feldspar, quartz, muscovite or biotite, amphibole.
  • Intermediate: These include plagioclase, amphibole, muscovite or biotite, quartz.
  • Mafic: These include olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase.
  • Ultramafic: These include olivine and pyroxene.

Following is given the classification of igneous rocks based on texture:

  • aphanitic or fine grain
  • intermediate
  • phaneritic or coarse grain
  • glassy
  • frothy

Sedimentary Kinds of Rocks

A large part of the surface of the earth is composed of igneous rocks. The most of part of the crust of these rocks is covered by a thin layer of loose sediments. Over the time, these small pieces of sediments become compressed and hard. Such types of rocks are called sedimentary or secondary rocks. These rocks are divided into:

  • Clastic: These are formed by the compaction and cementation of the small accumulated pieces of broken rocks. These pieces undergo the lithification process and become basic sedimentary rocks.
  • Chemical: These are come into existence as a result of water vaporization leaving behind the minerals on the surface. Large deposits of salt and gypsum are created as a result of repetitive floods and evaporation.
  • Organic: Calcium is found in the bones, teeth and shells of the animals. Gradually, these sources collected on the seabed and give rise to a sedimentary rock because of organic processes such as limestone, coal, peat, oil etc.

Metamorphic Types of Rocks

The term metamorphic is a combination of two words, i.e. ‘meta’ meaning ‘change’ and ‘morph’ meaning ‘form’. Metamorphic rock can be any rock that fulfills the condition of being encircled by an environment that makes the minerals inside the rock wobbly and in non-equilibrium state. This normally happen when the rock is buried and the pressure and temperature begins to increase immensely. This high pressure and temperature cause some changes to happen in the minerals as a result of which equilibrium is obtained. Common examples include slate, gneiss, schist and marble.

The non-foliated metamorphic rocks are the rocks which are formed as a result of litho-static pressure and heat. These elements are more common under the surface of earth. Due to these factors, the rocks become recrystallized. Following are given different examples of these rocks:

  • Quartzite: It is drawn from sandstone and pretty much appear like sandstone. It is hard and bursts in via quartz grains.
  • Hornfels: It is drawn from shale and is hard and solid.

  • Marble: It is made up of calcium and carbonate and is drawn from limestone. It is not as hard as quartzite and hornfels. Marble has several uses.

Foliated rocks are the rocks which are formed as result of directed pressure and heat. In these rocks, different proportion of akin elements combines and gives rise to minerals operating under variable pressure and heat conditions. Greenschist facies, actinolite facies and staurolite facies are some of the common examples. Following are given some examples of foliated metamorphic rocks:

  • Slate: It is hard and durable with microscopic grains. It is widely used in roofs, pool table tops and chalkboards.
  • Phyllite: It gets its shine through mica and it can be half muscovite or graphite or chlorite.
  • Schist: It is also known as schistosity which is formed through the foliation of micaceous minerals. It is variable in its primary features and textures.
  • Gneiss: It is considered as high grade metamorphic rock with a color stripping of light and dark minerals.
  • Migmatite: It is formed due to the slight melting and recrystallization of felsic minerals.
Types of Cars

Types of Cars

We are living in a modern era where technology is booming steadily day in and day out. A lot of new inventions have been made since the primitive times. Cars which nowadays have become an indispensible part of our lives began to appear on the scene with an invention of first steam powered car in 1672. Since the appearance of the first steam powered car, the technology is getting better and better. However, a lot of work has been made in automobile industry in recent few decades and now we have several different types of cars with exceptionally advanced technologies and features. Different automobile companies are working hard to bring new concepts and technology to the market for the convenience of the people. We can expect to have more improved cars with the passage of time.

Different Types of Cars

Cars are usually differentiated from each other on the basis of their size, shape, mechanical specifications, performance and several other features. Following are given some of the different types of cars:

Convertibles: These are the cars which are sportier in looks and have a roof that can either be discarded or creased back. Convertibles are normally two-seater vehicles having two doors. However, there are convertibles having four-seats and four doors. People often prefer power controlled convertibles rather than the ones for which you have to discard the roof manually. It is so because discarding a roof can sometimes be tiresome. Ford Mustang, Pontiac Sunfire and Dodge Avenger are popular convertibles.

Coupes: Coupes are the vehicles normally preferred by individuals who are either single or childless couple. Coupes normally have hatchback instead of a trunk. These are two door vehicles in which one has to access the rear seats from the front doors. There are three different types of door coupes, i.e. club coupe, business coupe and opera coupe. The rear seats in club coupes are relatively larger like those of sedans. Business coupes lack rear sears, i.e. they don’t have any rear seats. Business coupes are often preferred for carrying tools or equipment. Opera coupes are often treated as large sedans having high roof and removable rear seats.

Hatchbacks: These are the vehicles which have a cargo space at the rear with a large door. These are medium sized vehicles with ample cargo space at the rear end which can be accessed from the rear. They don’t have separate trunk as that of sedans. Audi S3, Dodge Caliber and Geo Metro are some of the popular examples of hatchback vehicles.

Sedans: Sedans become from medium-sized to large-sized models. Sedans generally come with two rows of seats, i.e. front seats and the rear seats. As these vehicles are comparatively larger in size, they have enough space for the people who sit on the rear seat. Sedans are considered as a family car with all the advanced features like powerful engine, comfortable interior. In medium-sized sedans Toyota Camry and Ford Taurus are quite renowned while in large sedans Ford Crown Victoria and Buick LeSabre are much sought after sedans.

Minivans: Often known as Multi-Utility Vehicles (MUVs), minivans are the vehicles which are quite spacious and can either be used for passengers or for transporting goods. Minivans are available in market in several different forms. For instance, some of the minivans are four wheel drives, whereas some of them allow you to fold the seats to make the passenger vehicle a utility vehicle. Dodge Grand Caravan, Kia Carnival and Volkswagen Routan are some of the major models.

Sport-utility Vehicles (SUVs): Sport-utility vehicles commonly known as SUVs are normally intended for off-road territories or where power is required to move the vehicle such as in deserts or places where regular roads are not available. These are powerful vehicles with four wheel drive. They are also referred to as off-road vehicles or 4×4. These are known for ground clearance and massive looks. BMW X-5, Toyota Land Cruiser and the Lexus RX300 are some of the popular models of SUVs.

Sports Cars: Sports cars are often not considered as the family cars because they are designed merely for the enthusiasts. Sports cars are usually powered by a strong engine with stunning looks. To raise the performance of the sport cars high class aerodynamics are applied. Sport cars are comparatively much costlier than other types of luxury cars.

Station Wagons: Station wagons are four door vehicles comparatively lengthier than other vehicles. These vehicles not only have two rows of seats but also have enough cargo space at the rear. The major feature of these vehicles is that the passenger area is almost equal to that of a sedan and cargo space is separate to it. These vehicles also have a door at the rear as well.

Above mentioned are some of the popular types of cars found on the roads all across the world. Each and every type has its own distinctive features and mechanical specifications. Always choose the vehicle according to your need and requirement.

Daydreams

Types of Dreams

Dreams are basically a series of thoughts, emotions, ideas, images, visions, events, feelings and sensations that happen in one’s mind when he/she is asleep. This is not an authentic definition as we don’t have any authentic definition of dreams. It is almost impossible to describe dreams in words. Among many other countless mysteries of nature, dreams are the one for whom content and purpose is not yet understood by the experts. Dreams have remained topic of interest and discussion throughout the course of history. Dreams are an inevitable part of our lives about which no one is sure off. These are always questioned and the answer is yet to discover.

Dreams are something that we cannot have control of. It can be about anything. There are no boundaries for having a dream. You can find yourself in strange places with lot of strange people doing strange things and so on. You don’t have any control on your doings or on your environment. You just cannot change anything in you dream. Although, you will see the shadows, you can never relate them to real life. Dreams are of different types where some give you sense while other are senseless and full of ambiguity. Following are given some of the major types of dreams categorized and analyzed by experts on the basis of their nature.

Daydreams

You will be surprised to know that everyone is involved in daydreaming. According to the research, all the humans are inclined to daydream for about 70-120 minutes in a single day. Daydreams are just fleeting thoughts which don’t require any attention. However, the content of such dreams help you understanding your emotions and also encourage you to achieve your set goals.

Lucid Dreams

Lucid dreams are the types of dream wherein the dreamer is conscious about the fact that he or she is dreaming. What actually happens sometimes is that a person who is dreaming wake up in between and come to know that he is dreaming. This allows the dreamer to control his/her dream.

Lucid dreams allow a person to perform the things which he cannot do in reality. For instance, a dreamer tries to fly which in reality not possible. Different studies show that there are adults who have lucid dreams without even attempting.

Nightmares

If you are the one who has had a scariest dream in your life then you are well aware of nightmares. In this type of dreams, the dreamer awakes in the state of fear and anxiety. Nightmares are often considered as a response to some real life tragedy, problem, or conflict. Nightmares are scary and hard to forget.

Nightmares do have an impact on the dreamers as they feel frightened and anxious the whole day because of the vivid memories of the nightmare that they had. People often associates the nightmares with the warnings that our subconscious sending to us to make us realize to importance of handling the situation in reality which we ignore for some reasons.

Recurring Dreams

As the name suggests, these dreams repeat themselves over and over again. There are two thoughts of people regarding the recurring dreams. According to first thought, these dreams refer to some unresolved issue while the second thought state that these dreams are the response of a conscious or subconscious fear a dreamer has. Resolving an issue can stop these recurring dreams.

Another possible interpretation of recurring dreams is that they may perhaps bear a message for a dreamer. The message can be about anything that a dreamer has forgotten and these dreams remind you about that.

Recurring dreams are repetitive with little variations. These will come again and again until you don’t take notice of them. As we have explained earlier that there can be several reasons behind recurring dreams. These can base on your past or present.

Following are given few suggestions to overcome these dreams:

  • Make yourself willing and flexible to accept the change. Change in sense of your behavior or routine etc.
  • You need to evaluate yourself. You may find it difficult but you have to do it.
  • Objectivity is essential when evaluating yourself in regard to your dreams.
  • Keep your patience high and remain as cooler as you can. Avoid discouragement.
  • Accept the reality.

As soon as you find the solution, the dreams will stop repeating.

Healing Dreams

Experts are of the view that healing dreams are there to warn you for any illness or disease and consulting a doctor on time can prevent you from that illness. In this sense, healing dream serve as purpose of a message that help us avoid possible health issues.

Prophetic Dreams

Prophetic dreams are also known as precognitive dreams. In such dreams, a future event is reveled or simply, it foretells the future happenings. A school of thought says that prophetic dreams are the dreams that rejoined the missing chunks that we miss or don’t think over while planning something. These dreams are often taken as a warning from our subconscious.

Epic Dreams

These are considered as more vivid and persuasive that can bring change in one’s life. Epic dreams usually develop awareness in a dreamer about his/her natural environment. A dreamer when wakes up from an epic dream he feels as if he has discovered something grave or astounding. Whatever you see in your dream remain with you for a long period of time.

Facts of Dreams

  • We spend one third of our lives sleeping.
  • Dreams belong to everyone and everyone dreams. Some remember their dreams and some forget.
  • Personal disorder or deficiency of protein results in lessening the dream activity.
  • In a single night, one can have 4-7 dreams. Everyone dream for one to two hours in one night.
  • Like any person, blind people dream as well. The shadows in their dreams depend upon the time they became blind. Dreams can base on other senses as well such as smell and sound.
  • The characters in men dreams usually based on male while women dream about both male and female.
  • The dreams of the people trying to give up smoke are more intense and longer.
  • Infants usually less than 3 years of age don’t dream about themselves.
  • The people who snore tend to dream less or even no dreams.
  • Nightmares are usually associated with children. Adults tend to have fewer nightmares than children.
Water Pollution

Types of Water Pollution

The contamination of water is known as water pollution. When the water in ocean, seas, rivers, lakes and groundwater begins to pollute, we called it water pollution. There can be so many reasons for water pollution. There are two broad categories of water pollution, i.e. point source pollution and non-point source pollution. When only one source is accountable for pollution like oil spill, it is known as point source pollution, while if two or more sources are responsible for pollution, it is known as non-point source pollution.

In many cases the pollution influences the immediate area nearby the source. However, there are instances where the pollution has an impact on the environment miles away from the source, .e.g. nuclear waste; this sort of pollution is known as trans-boundary pollution.

Surface Water Pollution

The most common form of the water pollution is surface water contamination. Surface water pollution can be seen with naked eye floating on the surface of the water. Normally, surface water pollution is associated with trash, but it can be sometimes based on chemical substances such as oil slicks or gasoline.

Groundwater Pollution

We all are pretty much aware of the fact that a large amount of water is discovered under the soil or rock structures, which are called aquifers. Aquifers are used as a source of drinking water and wells are built to access the water from them. Once this water gets contaminated, we called it groundwater pollution. Mostly, pesticide infectivity from the soil is responsible for this sort of pollution.

Microbiological Pollution

The natural form of water pollution is often taken as microbiological pollution. Microorganisms are accountable for this sort of pollution, which prosper in water affects fish, animals and humans as well. Microorganisms usually include bacteria, protozoa, and viruses which are extremely harmful and can cause disease like cholera. Due to insufficient water purification treatment plants in poor countries, these diseases are quite common.

Oxygen depletion Pollution

Biodegradable substances present in the water help microorganisms to flourish. This in turn increases the number of microorganisms in the water quickly and they begin to consume the available oxygen. This phenomenon is known as oxygen depletion. Due to the high amount of oxygen consumption inside the water, the aerobic microorganisms die and the anaerobic microorganisms flourish and become a big threat for humans as well as for environment as some of them can produce toxic elements such as ammonia, sulfides etc.

Nutrients

Nutrients are abundant in wastewater and fertilizers which are extremely vital for the plants growth and development. However, the excess amount of these nutrients in water can be harmful as well because the high concentrations of these nutrients in water allow the weed and algae growth. They can contaminate the drinking water and also provide damage to other aquatic species.

Suspended Matter

There are pollutants and contaminants which don’t dissolve in the water, such pollutants are known as particulate matter. These particulate matters are capable of polluting the water by settling down at the bottom and make thick silt there. These matters often produce toxic substances which pollute the water and endangered the aquatic life.

Chemical

Agricultural and industrial developments are the two major sources that are responsible for polluting water with the chemicals discharged in water. Rivers and lakes are the most affected from the industrial wastes in the form of metals and solvents. Similarly, the pesticides used to control weed, insects and fungi can also pollute the water. Chemical substances have severe effects on aquatic life. Another source of chemical pollution is the petroleum. Oil spills from the ruptured ships is equally harmful for aquatic life and sea birds.

Silts and several other suspended matters together give rise to the water pollution. Within the lakes, rivers, seas or other water bodies Eutrophication occurs under natural conditions which increase the level of sediments and organic matters in the water which affect the aquatic life and also the humans as well as plants.