Category Archives: Art & Entertainment

Japanese Art

Types of Japanese Art

Japan has always been known for its rich traditional art. Japanese art is characterized by several different forms of art. Japan is known for its rich aesthetic art all along with the traces of some foreign influences in their art. The history of Japanese art if very long which has gone through several different phases such as at one time the Japanese art was under a heavy influence of foreign ideas, while at the other, the art form was purely based on their on thoughts and ideas without any foreign influence.

Japanese traditional art is quite rich as available in several different forms. Several different mediums of expression have been used by Japanese artists to express their ideas. Japanese traditional art is based on attractive Japanese paintings, the well-formed Japanese pottery, the Japanese Sculptures and the most distinct form that involve the arrangement of flowers, i.e. Ikebana and of course Origami, the art form related to folding paper. Following are given some of the different types of Japanese traditional art that has fascinating the people for years.

Japanese Traditional Art: Painting

Japanese paintings are known to be the oldest art form of Japanese traditional art. These paintings are unique and have some distinguished features. Japanese paintings not only portray the individual ideas of the Japanese artists but also show hint of foreign influences as well.

Over the course of Japanese history, Japanese traditional art had gone through several phases. One such phase in Japanese art was the introduction of wall paintings (murals) at some point in Nara period. Murals were commonly displayed on the walls of the Horyu-ji, a temple in Ikaruga, Nara. The paintings made by the artists follow the same painting styles as that of Chinese paintings and were usually based on religious beliefs and tales.

Over the course of history, Japanese art came across the images of Mandala which means ‘circle’ in Sanskrit. In Buddhism, the majority of the sacred art takes the form of Mandala. By the mid-Heian period, the traces of Chinese art styles cleared from the Japanese art.

It was somewhere in 14th century, when the influence of Zen monasteries became so prominent in the Japanese art. It was the time when Yuan and Sung dynasties introduced an Ink painting in Japanese art. During this time, the monochrome landscape paintings began to be popular. At the end of Muromachi period, the decorative art style became dominant over the ink paintings.

Somewhere around Azuchi-Momoyama period, the Japanese art viewed the introduction of gold and silver foil in the art forms. Several different styles were introduced in the Japanese art In Edo period. Monumental landscapes and wall paintings beautified the sliding doors and castles respectively.

During the Meiji period, the Japanese art became under the heavy influence of western art, however, the art critics in Japan done a great job in the revival of the Japanese art in its original form such as Nihonga art.

Presently, Japanese artists have integrated many new themes and abstract paintings in the Japanese art to keep pace with the present demands of the society. Nihonga is a form of Japanese art which is still presented in several different ways, especially with modern themes and mediums.

Japanese Traditional Art: Pottery and Sculpture

Previously, the pottery work in Japan was based on coil, adorned with rope patterns and all the work was done with hands. With a view to retain the native styles, many artists studied the traditional methods. During the course of Japanese history, several different styles developed and were crafted by Korean potters at first. Classic wares were excessively created during the 1980s and dragons and floral designs decorated with the Arita porcelain. The bizen ware crafted were reddish brown in color and strong as iron.

Japanese sculpture on the other hand is known for its own characteristic features with an emphasis on Buddhism. Different periods of history saw many different modified forms and styles of sculptures. Previously, metals and wood were the main ingredients used in crafting sculptures. However, clay was used to craft the images of dogu and haniwa. Hakuho art period is known for seeing some remarkable Buddhist sculptures.

As the time passed, new ideas and material has been introduced to craft different sculptures. An important progress was the flourishing of outdoor sculptures which are now used in the parks or other landscapes.

Bonsai

Bonsai which is pronounced as ‘bone-high’ is one of the oldest oriental horticultural art form of Japanese art. In both Chinese and Japanese, the term ‘bonsai’ means ‘tree in a pot’. This art form was first developed in Orient about 2,000 years ago. Presently too, the refined form of bonsai art is practiced in different parts of the world.

We cannot say that a planted tree in a pot is bonsai unless the tree is properly pruned, shaped and trimmed into a particular shape. Generally, bonsai is a form of Japanese art where a tree is customarily dwarfed by using Japanese art techniques. So, bonsai are the trees which require some special care in terms of pruning, shaping and training so as to keep it going for a longer period of time. It is said that a bonsai can live up to hundred years if cared properly. Bonsai can take some additional styles with some embellished forms.

Ikebana

Ikebana is a form of ancient Japanese art which is based on arrangement of flowers. Ikebana is an art form that based on some strict rules in order to attain harmony, balance and elegant arrangement of flowers. There are number of schools scattered all over the Japan that provide formal training to the people to learn essential techniques and principles regarding ikebana. It is worth mentioning that Ikebana is far different from other western flower arrangement techniques.

Origami

In Japanese language, the term ‘origami’ literally means paper folding. This is a form of Japanese art that involves paper folding. Origami is an art form of which formal schooling is available in Japan, where the students interested in this art are taught the different skills and arts to craft things or objects from folded paper. Not all the origami pieces are alike rather these can be different in their sizes and designs, i.e. they can range from simple folded boxes to complex objects or things formed by connecting different pieces of paper.

Japanese Tea Ceremony

It is an important event in the Japanese culture. Tea ceremony is celebrated in several different styles in different regions of Japan. The main feature of tea ceremony is that it never recurs in exactly the same way as it held once. Chashitsu is a room where tea ceremony is held. This room is positioned within the teahouse but away from residence and is only designed and decorated for this tea ceremony.

Japanese Poetry

If we go through the history of Japan, we will come to know that Japan has a very rich history of poetry. It was hundreds of years ago when the poetry was first introduced in this part of the world and over the time, it became an important part of Japanese culture. The poems which are written in Japanese are given the name ‘wakas’ meaning ‘Japanese Poems’. The Japanese poetry is poplar for its simplicity.

Japanese Calligraphy

It was in 17th century when calligraphy started becoming popular in Japan. Buddhism reached Japan from India where it travelled through China and Korea and finally reached Japan where many people among emperors converted to Buddhism. Earlier Buddhist scriptures were written in Chinese writing. It was believed that the Buddhist monk Kukai was the first Japanese calligrapher who rewrote the section of five paneled screen.

Japanese Martial Arts

It was in medieval period when martial arts began to gain popularity in Japan. Samurai class practiced martial arts. The term ‘martial’ means ‘fighting’ which means that martial art is an art of fighting. It helps people to defend the attacks from enemies.

Ukiyo-E

In Japanese language, the term ‘ukiyo-e’ means the picture of the floating world. The phrase ‘floating world’ indirectly symbolizes the insular, carefree and pleasure seeking world of Japan particularly in Edo period. Ukiyo-E is basically an art that includes woodblock prints and watercolors commonly used between the 17th and 20th century. This art most of the time symbolizes the scenes or landscapes of city life, scenes from the pleasure seeking quarters of Japanese cities and also scenes from the history and culture.

Knots

Types of Knots

A knot is a method used to fasten or secure linear material by looping or tying a rope upon itself or to another rope or to another object or thing. A knot can comprise of a length one or several sections or pieces of rope, string, webbing, twine, chain, strap etc. Knots have been the subject of interest for many people as they are keen to know about the origins and usefulness of these knots on daily lives. Knots also have some role to play in mathematics in form of ‘knot theory’.

There are numerous varieties of knots which are used to perform several different tasks. Knots become handy in so many ways, especially when you need to bind the two ropes with each other or to bind the rope with any object or thing like cleat, ring, stake etc. Knots also become handy where you need to bind or compressed the objects. There are decorative knots which are tied to their selves in order to get some eye-catching decorative design. It is always vital to select the right kind of knot for right kind of job or task. You must need to develop this skill of choosing a right knot for the right task and for this you need to have some knowledge about the different types of knots. Following are given some of the different types of knots.

Bowline

One of the oldest and more reliable type of knot that becomes handy when a fixed loop is required at the end of the rope. Bowline knot is popular because you can easily tie and untie it. Apart from being so useful and dependable knot, it has some drawbacks as well for it can become loose when not operating under a load and often the bight portion of the knot overturns.

Reef Knot

Reef knot is another old type of knot used where simple tying is needed make the rope or line around an object safe. Mostly, reef knot is used to tie two ropes mutually but this is not suggestible because of the shaky nature of the knot.

The simplest rule of thumb to form this knot is ‘right over left and left over right’. This knot is formed by binding the left-handed overhand knot and then a right-handed overhand knot, or the reverse.

Sheet Bend

Becket bend, weaver’s knot and weaver’s hitch are some of the other names for sheet bend. Sheet bend is a kind of knot which is used to tie two ropes together. If double sheet bend is used, it will give you a reliable tying lines having variable diameter or strictness. Like bowline, it is inclined to get loose when not operated under load.

Water Knot

Tape knot, ring bend, grass knot and overhand follow through are some of the other names used for water knot. Water knot is a kind of knot which is widely used for climbing by binding two ends of the webbing together such as a sling. Water knot is formed by tying overhand knot at one end preceded by the other end providing it in the opposite path.

Buntline Hitch

Buntline hitch is a kind of knot used to join a rope to an object. Buntline hitch is considered as a secure and reliable knot which is formed by looping the rope around the object. After looping the rope around the object, you need to make clove hitch around the rope’s upright part. Make sure that the two half hitches create the clove hitch are in the direction of the object instead of facing away.

Timber Hitch

The name may have given you some idea about this knot which is used to tie the rope to a log of wood. This knot is easy to tie as well as untie.

In order to form a timber hitch, first pass the rope around the piece of wood, then round the upright end of the rope. Next you need to wrap the rope around the loop three times and fasten the knot so as to make sure that the three turns grip the piece of wood tightly.

Rolling Hitch

Rolling hitch also known as Magnus hitch is a kind of knot which is used to join the rope to a rod, pole or to another rope. It is considered as a simple friction hitch designed for lengthwise pull along instead of at right angles. The main purpose of rolling hitch is to withstand the lengthwise motion.

Taut-Line Hitch

Taut-line hitch and rolling hitch are almost the same. However, taut-line hitch is known to be an adjustable loop knot which is used for the lines having tension. Taut-line hatch is extremely helpful in conditions where the length of a line require to be adjusted every so often to sustain the tension. A taut-line hitch is formed by binding the rolling hitch around the standing end of the rope. The tension is adjusted by sliding the hitch to a required length without being rebinding the knot.

Trucker’s Hitch

Trucker’s hitch is a kind of compound or self-binding knot widely used to tie or secure loads or objects on trucks or trailers. Trucker’s hitch is a knot that is formed by loops and turns in the rope itself. It is known by many different names and often used to sustain the tension in lines. Geoffrey Budworth is of the view that this sort of knot developed in the old days when horse drawn transportation was used by carters and hawkers to transport goods from one place to another.

Constrictor Knot

It is a kind of knot which is known to be the most helpful binding knot. Although, it is simple to tie, it is pretty hard to untie this knot once it is fastened. It is formed in a similar way as clove hitch, but the difference lies in a point where one end of the rope crossed under the other, hence creating an overhand knot under a riding turn. The double knot is much stronger with two riding turns.

Alpine Butterfly Knot

Alpine butterfly knot is a kind of knot which is used to make a firm loop in the middle of the rope. This sort of knot is formed in such a way that it bind in the bight without even accessing either of the ends. This sort of arrangement is extremely good when you are operating with a long climbing rope. This mid-line rigging knot is well proportioned and can be used for variety of tasks. For instance, if we talk about climbing rope, it can be used for traverse lines, anchors, restricting rope slings and so on.

Prusik

It is a kind of friction hitch or knot that is utilized to place a loop of cord around the rope which can become handy in climbing, canyoneering, mountaineering, caving, rope rescue, and for arborists. The word Prusik is applied to both loops of cord and the hitch. In long term, this term can also be applied to any kind of friction hitch or device that is capable of grabbing a rope. The term Prusik is often misspelled by the people who confused it with prussic acid and spell it as Prussik or Prussick.

Figure-Eight Knot

Figure-eight knot is a knot that has its implementation both in sailing and rock climbing where this knot helps to retain the ropes from slipping out of retaining devices. One of the main features of this knot is that it can be untied easily even after it is firmly tightened.

Spanish Bowline

Spanish bowline is in fact a kind of double loop knot used to lift up a person. There is a distinction for conscious and unconscious persons. In case of conscious person, each of the two loops is put around each leg and the person holds the straight part of the rope. It seems as if this knot behaves like a makeshift Bosun’s chair. However, in case of unconscious person, one loop is put around the arm pits and the other is put around the knees of the person.

It is a bit difficult to tie this knot for a person who is new to it, but once you are mastered to it, you can tie it quickly. One other example of double loop knot is that is a fireman’s chair knot. However, this is not as good as Spanish bowline.

Monkey’s Fist

A monkey’s fist or a monkey’s paw is a kind of knot that resembles a small tightly closed fist or paw. This knot also resembles volleyball or an old-styled football in appearance. This knot was previously used as an anchor in rock climbing but is now outdated and risky as well. This knot is normally bound at the end of the rope so as to serve as a weight. This arrangement of knot makes it suitable for use as an extemporized weapon for sailors such as slungshot.

Versatackle Knot

It is a kind of knot comprised of two loops having rope crossed backward and forward between them. In its functions, it works pretty much like a Trucker’s hitch with slight differences.

Above mentioned are some of the different types of knots. It is always handy to have a good knowledge about some of the different types of knots because in our routine lives we come across several tasks where we need to tie a knot of particular type depending upon the job. Not all the knots work well in all situations so it is required to use certain knot according to the job rather than putting yourself in awkward or terrible situation.

Art

Types of Art

The term art is not new as it has been with the humans for many centuries in one or another form, i.e. from ancient cave scrawling or scribbles and picture to the refined and diverse art of the present day. Art doesn’t exist in any one genre as there are several different genres of art exist where an artist apply different techniques and use different tools to create an artwork. Pastels, oil paints, pen, ink, acrylic paints, pencils, collage and several other tools or mediums are utilized by artists to create an artistic work. These mediums can be applied with the help of brushes, sponges, or even with hands. Artwork may portray or represent still life, floral, landscape, interior, portraiture, figure, abstract and experimental, animal or wildlife art. These are all constitute the different type of genres which can be made using different tools or mediums and can belong to different category of art. However, it is possible that a single artwork may carry the features of more than one art category. Below are given some of the different types of art.

Abstract Art

Abstract art is an art in which the artwork is based on general ideas rather than having any physical existence. In other words, we can say that an abstract art is based on an internal form instead of having any pictorial representation of things. The idea behind abstract art is to bring forth one’s feelings and sensations instead of portraying a real image. Abstract art is a genre of art which emphasize on the use of colors, shapes, or lines than mere pictorial representation. Abstract art was developed in response to classicism and impressionism. This nonobjective and nonrepresentational art was introduced in between 19th and 20th century. Pablo Picasso, Piet Mondrian, Wassily Kandinsky and Jackson Pollock are considered as some of the major names in promoting abstract art.

Impressionism

Impressionism is a genre of art that became popular in the late 19th century in a response to the needs of the French Academie des Beaux-Arts, commonly called The Academie. In impressionism a picture or image is portrayed by thick strokes of unmixed paints (Impasto) to give the impression of reflected light. The thick layer of paints used by the artists is prominent enough which are placed alongside each other and represents some sort of stylized imagery. The main idea behind this genre of art is centered on a fact that how the real light reflect the art content in different time of the day and seasons. To achieve this, majority of the impressionists used to paint outdoors in order to obtain the natural effects of light. Monet, Sisley, Renoir and Pissaro are some renowned impressionists.

Expressionism

Expressionism is a genre of art which deals with the subjective feelings of an artist. This genre of art flourished in the 20th century in a response to the impressionism. The main purpose of expressionism is to depict emotions by means of art. Unlike abstract genre of art in which the emphasis is put on the ideas or feelings other than reality, expressionism depicts real or existing ideas or images but in consent with the artist’s emotive nature. You may find the section of the colors and composition of the work hasty but they portray the artist’s feelings. Some of the popular expressionists are Egon Schiele, Edvard Munch and Marc Chagall.

Romanticism

Romanticism is a genre of art which was originated in Europe somewhere in the 18th century against the Age of Enlightenment. Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement which is describes by an elevated interest in nature, importance given to the individual’s expression of thoughts and feelings, and to reject the norms of classicism. Romanticism is a genre of art which is picturesque and characterize an emotional outlook. Colors and feelings are the two major factors that heightened the artistic contents. Thomas Cole, Henry Fuseli and William Blake are some of the renowned romanticist painters.

Pointillism

It is a genre of art which was developed by George Seurat and his followers in late 19th century in the France. This genre of art based on a technique of painting with tiny dots of pure colors that are arranged in certain patterns which give a distinguished image. Mostly, this sort of art genre centers around the portraiture, however, this technique may used to portray landscapes and abstract artwork as well. Some of the popular pointillist painters are George-Pierre Seurat, Vincent van Gogh and Chuck Close.

Folk Art

Folk art is a genre of art whose origin is yet not clear and it depicts the traditional values or norms of a society or culture. Some of the popular folk art comes from China, Africa, Latin America and North America. Art is equally popular in almost all the cultures. The mediums and materials utilized in folk art include fabric, paper, metal and clay. Folk art can be seen in the form of carved shapes, masks, puppetry, signs and textiles. Naïve, primitive and tribal art are often covered in folk art.

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is a term which is derived from French language which literally means ‘new art’. This genre of art developed in France from where it extended to different European countries such as Belgium, Germany, Italy, etc. It also reached United Kingdom and United States somewhere between late 19th and early 20th century. Art nouveau is an art that focused on curvilinear facets of line which are applied to draw a flowing, especially liquid appearance. Art nouveau developed as a reaction to the Victorian art.

Cubism

Cubism is a genre of art that developed in France in early 20th century with an inspiration taken from the then non-industrialized cultures like African, Native American and Micronesian. Cubism is an art which focus on the use of geometrical shapes to depict an object or image in artwork. Some of the famous cubist painters whose work got some appreciation are Pablo Picasso, Juan Gris and Georges Braque.

Realism

Realism is a genre of art which is based on practical matters or real things rather than imaginary or visionary representations. Realism developed as a reaction to the romanticism in the 19th century. All the representations are based on facts which are not influenced by the emotional aspects of an artist. An artist presents the things prior to any emotions and feelings. Some of the famous painters include John Singer Sargent, Thomas Eakins, Gustave Courbet and James Abbot McNeill Whistler.

Autism

Types of Autism

Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a medical condition which is defined as a developmental disability or disturbance affecting the people in childhood and may persist in their adulthood as well. The treatment of autism largely depends upon the intensity of the symptoms. The sooner the autism symptoms are diagnosed greater will be the chances to cure this disorder. The effectiveness of treatment based on the diagnosis of the disorder. Autism is not a limited term. There are so many different forms of autism which affect the people in different ways. In this article, we have tried to present some of the different known types of autism along with the brief description of the nature and symptoms of each type.

What are the Different Types of Autism

It is important to note that autism occur in an early age of infancy or childhood, to say before three years of age. Medical history shows that autism is more common in males than in females. Medical researchers have explained five different types of autism in children which can take any of the form on adults as well. All these types are studied under Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Let us have a look at these five different types of autism:

Kanner’s Syndrome/Classic Autistic Disorder

This is the most common and the most severe type of autism in the children. The most prominent symptom of this disorder is the delayed speech development; however, there are many other symptoms associated with this syndrome as well. For instance, the children with this sort of autism normally like to stay in their own world, are very conservative, and are involved in repetitive movements. The children with this type of autism usually have a poor response against the loud and clatter noises. They are unable to understand jokes, emotions and innuendos. Classic Autistic Disorder is common in the children under three years of age.

Asperger’s Syndrome

Unlike classic autistic disorder, this disorder is less severe and usually develops in children at young age and continues into the adult age. This sort of autism is often called high functioning autism. In Asperger’s syndrome, the social interaction and communication of children is much better than the children with classic autistic disorder; however the level of social interaction and communication is limited. They do well in intelligence tests and may score an average or even above average. They do well in their interested subjects whatever the subject may be. They learn each and everything about it. Here, the actual problem arises, this interest in subject make them confined in their interaction and communication and they only show good interaction and communication level with the people sharing the same interest otherwise they have difficulty in interaction with other people. They also have difficulty understanding jokes and sarcasm.

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

Childhood disintegrative disorder is another type of autism which bears the same symptoms as we have mentioned above. Children with this sort of autism show the normal development (i.e. communication, language, motor skills and so on) up to the age of three. But once they have passed their third year of age, this disorder begins to develop in them. A loss of vocabulary, worsening of motor and social skills, declining IQ level all are the major symptoms of this disorder. The worsening of the motor and social skills is such to an extent where these children loss control over bladder. In severe cases of this disorder, seizure can also occur in an individual. Like many other types of autism, this type is also more common in males than in females. Treatments are there to control the development of the disease; however this is not completely curable.

Rett’s Disorder

This is a rare type of autism and only affects the females. Like the childhood disintegrative disorder, girls with Rett’s disorder show a good development up to the age of 6 months to 18 months. After that, a serious decline is seen in them where they begin to loose all their skills which they had learnt and developed by now. For example, they are unable to dress on their own or they are unable to take bath themselves. It is thought that the major cause of this disorder is the alteration in the order of a single gene. The symptoms shown by the girls with Rett’s disorder may by similar to many other types of autism such as like child autism, they may develop the habit of repetitive movements. Aggression and seizure are other symptoms. Here it is important to note that if the occurrence of the seizures is frequent, this could be severe. Other common symptoms involve difficulty in having a good sleep and irritability. Rett’s disorder is pretty much treatable and a proper treatment plan is required to treat the symptoms of this disorder.

Pervasive Developmental Disorder (Not Otherwise Specified) (PDD-NOS)

A child is said to have a pervasive developmental disorder when he has symptoms almost similar to that to autism spectrum disorder with slight deviations in the symptoms. Let us explain this fact with the help of example. Let us suppose a child has symptoms of lack of eye contact and lack of ability to express his emotions but have good language and comprehension skills. Pervasive developmental disorder is a mild form of autism in which it can be possible to have one symptom more fatal than the other. With pervasive developmental disorder, it is always difficult to observe the nature of the symptoms due to which diagnosis and treatment process also become difficult.

Treating the Different Types of Autism

Now we have already discussed some of the different types of autism. It is time to talk about the treatment of these different types. The first thing you need to bear in mind is the intensity of the symptoms of autism. Treatment is largely based on the nature of the symptoms. Mild symptoms require different treatment plan while severe symptoms require to be treated differently. Also, it is worth mentioning here that not all the autism type can be treated completely. The efforts are made to lessen the severity of symptoms in order to make an individual less dependent and able to perform his own tasks. To achieve this, many therapies are used to help the people with autism to enhance their language, communication, motor and social skills.

It is always important to consult your child specialist as soon as you notice any symptoms of autism in your child. After examining your child, child specialist may refer you to any psychiatrist for further help. Remember, we have mentioned time and again that the sooner the autism symptoms are diagnosed better is the chances to treat the symptoms of autism. Like children, there are many therapies which are there to treat the adult patient with autism.

Plastic

Types of Plastic

Plastic is a useful substance that has an important to role to play on our daily lives. There are numerous number of things that we use in our daily lives are made up of plastic. Although, plastic can be obtained naturally, but the mostly it is used in synthesized form and considered as a polymer of several organic molecules.

There are so many different types of plastic available in the market. However, broadly speaking plastic is categorized into three different forms:

  • Elastomers
  • Thermosetting plastics
  • Thermoplastics plastics

Elastomers

It can be natural or synthetic elastic substance wherein the polymers are so connected that they form a cross-linked structure. Elastomers though elastic in nature can hardly be reshaped and are highly heat resistant. Elastomers are used in the manufacturing of automobile tires.

Thermosetting Plastics

These plastics also have a high resistant against heat. Like elastomers, thermosetting plastics cannot be reshaped later. The polymers used to form this sort of plastic are closely linked and make a branched structure. These closely interweaving of the molecules give this plastic rigidness and strength. Thermosetting plastic is widely used in the manufacturing of hardware materials. Besides this, this plastic is also used to make containers where extreme resistance to heat is required. Also, electronic boards and switches are made from thermosetting plastic.

Thermoplastic Plastic

This is known to be the most commonly used plastic form which is capable of reformed or reshaped on heating. Its simple or linear branch structure make this plastic flexible even at room temperature. On heating the plastic at 118-120 °C, it will take a form of liquid. Thermoplastic is subdivided into several different forms which are given below.

  • Polyethylene terephthalate or PET

It is a form of thermoplastic plastic which is used in the manufacturing of soft drink bottles, containers for biscuits, cosmetics, mouthwash and numerous other products. The most common use of this plastic is to made plastic containers. These containers are usually hard, transparent and corrosion resistant. Because of its high melting point, it is ideal choice for making the containers.

  • Polypropylene or PP

This is known as a polymer of propylene which is hard plastic but still elastic. It also has a high melting point somewhere around 140 °C. It is also clear, adaptable and durable as well. It is considered good for storing solvents. Straws, containers for medicines, syrups and margarines are often made from this plastic. Also, this plastic is considered more hygienic than PET and is therefore, baby bottles are also made from this plastic.

  • Polyvinyl chloride or PVC

It was in 1900 when polyvinyl chloride or PVC is invented in Germany. Previously, this form of plastic was used to make cables since long time. But today the use of this plastic has now expanded as it us now used in the manufacturing of pipes, wall coverings, and toys. The most prominent use of this form of plastic is the manufacturing of pipes. It strong but flexible nature make it best option for pipes. PVC pipes are far better than iron pipes in many respects as there is now fear of rust or corrosion with PVC pipes and also these are far cheaper than the iron pipes.

  • Polystyrene

The name may have given you some idea about this plastic. It is polymer of styrene molecules. It is fragile, solid and transparent plastic which is used to make egg cartons, crockery, Styrofoam cups and insulating material.

  • Polyethylene

The polymer of ethylene is involved in this plastic. It is further divided into two forms:

  1. High density polyethylene
  2. Low density polyethylene
  1. 1. High Density Polyethylene

This is used to make shopping bags, milk bottles, buckets, shampoo and juice bottles, milk crates, and detergent bottles.

  1. 2. Low Density Polyethylene or LDPE

This plastic is used to make trash bags, food storage containers, squeeze bottles and dry cleaning bags.

  • Polyacrylics

These are hard, solid and transparent plastics mostly used to make decorative items.

Shed Roof

Types of Porch Roofs

A porch is an area normally at the entrance of the house having a roof and walls as well in some cases. Certainly, porch is an important addition of the house. Porch can have several different roles to play in any home. It is used for summer parties and cookouts; provide a calm place in the cool summer evenings; and a quiet, relaxing place after having a busy day. The most important part of the porch is its roof that is there to keep the rain and sun away from you. The selection of the roof for your porch is a thoughtful process. It is important to for you to make certain that the chosen roof harmonize with the design of the overall home.

Shed Roof

Shed roof or the half-gable roof is a kind of single sloping roof that is opted for the porches which are long and narrow. When you looked flat on these sheds they will appear straight on (not curved). Whenever a shed roof is used in a porch, the higher part of the roof should be flat against the home and the lower end of the roof should be extended over the porch where beams or poles support it. As shed roof don’t contain any hips, valleys or ridges, these are easy to create.

Gable Roof

Gable roof is one of the most popular porch roofs and is available in several pitches. What we mean by pitch here is its slope or steepness. This is necessary to keep the snow or rain water out otherwise water or snow will accumulate on the roof and will damage it. Gable roof is basically formed by joining two flat side walls at the centre ridge or peak that gives it a triangular shape. Soffit and fascia are needed to enfold any extra projections next to the sides or front of the porch. The major benefit of gable roof is that it compliments almost all the roof designs on homes.

Hipped Roof

A hipped roof style is a roof style where all the sides of the roof slope downward. Hipped roof are considered as one of the most stronger and durable roof designs. All the sides of hipped roof are sloping downward with no gables at the end. Hipped roofs normally have leveled and widened eaves which are extremely helpful in increasing the thermal efficiency and also lessen the energy consumption.

Pearls

Types of Pearls

There is a famous Arabic myth according to which pearls are shaped when dew drops fall into the ocean and swallowed by oysters. This is perhaps the courteous and impressive way to explain the process of formation of a pearl. However, scientific explanation is quite different from this mythical elucidation. Scientifically, when any foreign matter enters the shell of the mollusk and irritates it, mollusk covers the foreign particle with a chemical substance to avoid irritation. This chemical substance gradually transforms along with foreign matter into a smooth pear.

Pearls are not of single type. There are numerous known types of pearls. Each and every type of pearl is characterized by different ways and waters in which different types of pearls are developed or discovered. Following are given some of the types of pearls:

Natural Pearls

As the name suggests, these pearls are formed through a natural process. Natural pearls are known as the true pearls. These are formed when a foreign particle enters the shell of a mollusk and mollusk gets irritated with it. So, mollusk releases a particular type of chemical substance (calcium carbonate and conchiolin) to prevent this irritation. This chemical substance covers the foreign matter. This gradual production of chemical substance and its accumulation on the foreign matter eventually results in the creation of a pearl. Natural pearl can be of any shape. Having a round pearl is rare.

Cultured Pearls

Cultured pearls are types of pearls which are formed by raising the oysters and purposefully put a foreign matter inside the shell of mollusk. The foreign matter used in this regard is mostly bead. When a bead is placed in the shell of a mollusk, the pearl formed will get a shape of the bead. An X-ray can be used to differentiate the cultured pearls from other types of pearls. It is through X-ray that one can find the presence of bead placed in the shell. Although, the cultured pearl is also formed by natural process, the only difference between natural pearl and cultured pearl is the purposeful placement of bead in the shell of a mollusk in the latter type.

Freshwater Pearls

Freshwater pearls are the pearls which are formed in the shell of the oysters living in freshwaters, i.e. river, lake or ponds. It is said that more than twenty pearls can be formed from a single freshwater mollusk and one pearl takes almost 6 months to 2 years to get its final shape. With freshwater pearls relatively smaller-sized foreign matters are used. These pearls are rare and found in several different shapes. It is believed that freshwater pearls are more study and tough in contrast to saltwater pearls.

Saltwater Pearls

Unlike freshwater pearls, these pearls are formed from the oysters found in the saltwater such as ocean, bays, seas, and gulfs and also a single oyster can only form one pearl. The process of pearl formation in saltwater oyster takes over two years. Saltwater pearls are normally round in shape, less sturdy and have low resistant in contrast to freshwater pearls. However, saltwater pearls are costlier than freshwater pearls because of the higher cultivating cost of saltwater mollusks.

Akoya Pearls

These pearls are formed in the species Pinctada fucataoyster which is commonly found in the cool, temperate saltwater of Japan. China is known to the second largest in the production of akoya pearls. Akoya pearls are popular for their uniform mineral crystals having luminous sheen. It is considered as the shiniest pearl among all the other pearls. Normally, an akoya pearl takes it final form between eight to twenty-four months. However, the cultivators often wait for a little more time in a view to have a big pearl. Akoya pearl is normally available in the size range from 2-10 millimeter. The color of akoya pearls ranges from rose, silver/white, cream, gold to grey/blue.

South Sea Pearls

South Sea Pearls are formed in the shell of the species Pinctada maxima (the two varieties are known as the Silver Lipped and Gold Lipped Oysters). This species is common in the warm waters of Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Myanmar. The pearl formed in this species are larger in size and rarely found. South Sea pearls take almost twenty to twenty-four months before coming in its final form. These pearls can have a size of about 9-20 millimeter with an average size of 13 millimeter. South sea pearls are found in silver, silver/pink, white/gold, gold, white/pink and white colors.

Tahitian Pearls

The species Pinctada margaritifera cumingi oyster or the Black Lipped Oyster is accountable for the production of Tahitian pearls. It is widely available in the waters of French Polynesia. These pearls are very uncommon because of the fact that only 1 out of 10,000 oysters forms this pearl. It takes twenty-two to twenty-six months before a pearl gets its final shape. Tahitian pearls are usually 8-18 millimeter in size with an average size of 9-10 millimeter. However, the largest found Tahitian pearl was 25 millimeter in size. It is found in so many different color patterns such as aubergine (eggplant), peacock (the most common), black/green, black/black, black/blue, silver/grey, black/grey and black/rose.

Keshi Pearls

These pearls are considered as the consequence of the pearl culturing process. These are small in size and are formed when foreign matter enters in the shell and oyster covers it with nacre.

Mabe Pearls

Mabe pearls are the pearls which are formed when a plastic dome is fixed on the inner side of the shell of an oyster. Oyster wraps up the plastic dome with nacre. Once the formation process completed, the mabe is beheaded from the shell and the inner side is covered with plastic or any other such material to increase the weight. Finally, the mother of pearl are kept on the dorsal area of the mabe pearl.

Mother of the Pearl

Mother of the pearl is basically not a pearl in fact rather it is a kind of glossy coating found on the inner side of the shell of an oyster which is capable of forming a pearl. It is not found in all the oysters.

Above mentioned are some of the different types of pearls and it is obvious that the types of pearls are characterized in terms of the oyster species and nature of water where these oysters are raised.

Skiing

Types of Skiing

Skiing is a kind of sport in which a skier glides himself/herself on the snow with the help of skis. It is one of the most popular snow sports all across the world and myriad of people get attracted to it for diversity in its styles. Skier is a person who is involved in the sport or activity of skiing. Skiers use skis to move on the snow. Ski (plural: skis) is one of a pair of long narrow pieces of wood, metal or plastic that a skier attaches to his/her boots in order to glide freely on the snow.

If we look back into the history, we will come to know that skiing was first introduced as a means of transportation system many centuries ago. It was in Norway and Sweden where long skis were skillfully shaped from wood and mostly utilized to pull different objects or things with sled from one town to another via woodlands and farmlands. Somewhere in the 18th century, Swedish army was trained to use skis and later the first ever ski competitions were held. Presently, several other means has been devised to move on the snow and skis are not more the compulsion, but these are yet preferred by many for recreational purposes. One important breakthrough is the inclusion of ski event in the Olympic Games. It was in 1924 when the first Winter Olympic Games were held. The statistics provide by the Ski Area Management (SAM) reveals that in America alone, there are over 10 million skiers.

Skiing is a popular winter sport and a lot of skiing events and competitions are held in the winter across the world with colder climates. Skiing is not restricted to a single style. There are numerous types or style of skiing. Some of the different types are given below:

Alpine Skiing

Alpine skiing is a kind of skiing in which the downhill racing abilities and coordination of the skier are challenged. Alpine skiing one of the most popular winter sports among others with more than hundred resort communities all over the world.

The alpine skiing began to gain popularity when ski elevator infrastructure was introduced at mountain resorts to drag or pull the skier back on the top of the mountain slopes in the cross-country skiing. Ski elevator infrastructure enables the skier to enjoy skiing without getting tired from climbing up the slope again and again. So we can conclude to say that wherever the combination of snow, mountain slopes and a sufficient tourist infrastructure is available.

Backcountry Skiing

A type of skiing which is carried out in wild which means at places where there are no lifts, circuit, lodges, patrol or any other tourist infrastructures. It is all about your basic skills, abilities and not to forget nature. This type of skiing isn’t for amateur skiers because you need to be highly skilled to carry out backcountry skiing.

It is really a enjoyable sport for the one who have ample knowledge about the skiing along with professional skiing skills so that you will able to control yourself while skiing downhill on the wild slopes. If you have the knowledge and skills, you will certainly enjoy your backcountry skiing experience.

Cross-Country Skiing

Cross-country skiing is another type of skiing popular among the skiers of all ability levels. To promote cross-country skiing, events are designed for the Special Olympics so that players with all the ability level participate in them. Apart from these events, there are certain other events which are introduced and are specially designed for the players with low ability level so that they can get coached and compete in the amateur events. These amateur events help them to enhance their skills so that they will participate in professional events later.

Cross-country skiing is a tough snow sport which requires maximum participation of all the major muscles of your body and is therefore known to be among the sports, i.e. rowing and swimming which are useful in burning maximum amount of calories present in the body.

Extreme Skiing

You might have got a hint from its name that it is a type of skiing that involves extreme conditions rather than normal. For instance, in extreme skiing conditions are quite complex such as steep slopes, hard aerial maneuvers, large drops off of cliffs, flips and tricks are involved which skiers have to perform at places of which they are not familiar with. Heliskiing, out-of-bound skiing, and cross-country skiing with chainsaw are often considered as extreme skiing.

Glen Plake is a popular extreme skier involved in stylish Mohawk since 80s. Like any other sporting event, extreme skiing has also gain ample popularity among the majority of the masses and World Championships are now held in this particular skiing style. Though, it is a complicated form of the skiing, it is still liked and practiced by skillful skiers.

Freeskiing

Freeskiing is another type of skiing which involves some acrobatic stuff, i.e. skiers try to achieve as much airtime and perform tricks as many of them likely to be possible. Freeskiing is pretty much of an acrobatic stuff which is adrenalin inducing such as off-axis front and back flips, spins from 360 degrees to 1080 degrees, taking off and landing switch (backwards), helicopters, grabs and extensions.

Freeskiing is a recent phenomenon that is attributed to the use of energy which can be seen in the events like snowboarding, inline skating, skateboarding and so on. The moves and tricks perform in these events are limited to individual skiers.

Freestyle Skiing

It was in 1930s when freestyle skiing was first introduced by Norwegian skiers. Freestyle skiing began when the Norwegian skiers started showing some incredible acrobatic tricks in alpine and cross-country skiing. These acrobatic movements were then exhibited in many of the non-competitive professional events in the United States which were later given the name freestyles. Around 1950, Olympic gold medalist, Stein Eriksen introduced the aerial skiing.

Freestyle kept getting fame in the coming years, especially in 60s and 70s when it was commonly referred as ‘hot-dogging’. Being freestyle in nature, there were no hard and fast rules set for the skiers and was also risky. It was in 1974 when freestyle was introduced by John Johnston in Canada. There are more than thirty countries where active competitions are held for freestyle. However, this style of skiing officially accepted by the International Ski Federation (FIS) in 1979 and the federation introduced some new rules and regulations concerning the skiers’ certification and jump techniques with a view to minimize the risky factors connected with freestyle events. The first ever World Cup event was held in 1980 followed by first World Championship in Tignes, France in 1986.

Heliskiing

Heliskiing is related to alpine skiing in which a helicopter is used to obtain altitude rather than ski lifts. Heliskiing is a type of skiing which allows the skier to ski off-piste from any point (taken as starting point) in contrast to the regular fixed ski lifts. The use of helicopter makes it possible for the skier to ski at remote and unreachable places. Heliskiing is often associated with extreme skiing because of the risks involved in it such as avalanches and trees and rocks that may come as an obstacle during skiing. Helicopters used in this type of skiing have an exterior locker installed in it for storing skis and other related equipment.

Different people have different types of opinions regarding heliskiing. Some people appreciate it while other views it with mysticism, or fear. Heliskiing is all about plenty of snow and that’s all.

Ski Jumping

Ski jumping is another form of winter sport in which skier has to jump in order to cover a certain amount of distance. The points are based on the distance covered by a skier. There are two types of ski jumping, i.e. one practiced on snow skis and second one is practiced on water skis. In both the types, the points are awarded on the basis of distance covered by a skier in the air. Ski jumping events are based on point system where points are awarded to each participant on the basis of distance and style and in the end both distant points and style points are combined to rank the standings of each of the participant.

Ski Mountaineering

Ski mountaineering is a type of skiing in which skiing techniques are combined with mountaineering techniques. In ski mountaineering, the ski mountaineers climb up the slopes which are almost impossible to climb otherwise. Ski mountaineers make use of different mountaineering equipments such as crampons, ice axes and ropes. Skis are strapped on their backpacks.

Newschool Skiing

Newschool skiing is a type of freestyle skiing in which skiers perform different tricks like those of aerials or moguls. It is thought by many newschool skiing promoters that aerials and moguls originally don’t have anything to do with the development of freestyle skiing. Newschool skiers are normally t terrain parks where they are busy skiing and demonstrating to the new skiers that skiing is more than just skiing downhill.

Snowboarding

Snowboarding is among other winter sports which is gaining popularity. Snowboarding is more a board sport than skiing. However, snowboarding got its inspiration from skateboarding and surfing. Snowboarding make use of the equipment like snowboard, snowboarding boots designed in a way to strap the board to them, and snowboarding specific winter clothing. Snowboarding was included in the Olympics games for the first time in 1998. Apart from Olympics, there are certain other events held such as annual European and U.S. Open Snowboarding Championships, the Winter X-Games etc.

Snowkiting

Like many other snow sports. Snowkiting is also gaining fame among the winter sport lovers. It is often linked with skiing and snowboarding and is a popular winter sport in Austria, Norway, western United States, Switzerland and Sweden. It is a board sport incorporated with the airfoil and techniques used in kitesurfing along with the footgear and gliding surface used in snowboarding. A skier can use snowboards, alpine skis and telemark skis to practice snowkiting. Previously, foil kites were most frequent in snowkiting, but with the passage of time water gears tubekites begin to be used by the skiers. It is essential to practice snowkiting with care because it can be dangerous like other snow sports such as kitesurfing.

Speed Skiing

As the name suggests, speed skiing is something that is related to speed. In this sort of skiing, the skier glides down on a slope trying to attain maximum speed with which he/she will glide downhill. It is a gravity that allows the skier to attain the speed. It is assumed to be the second fastest non motorized sport form. Speed skiing is all about control that how you glide on the snow to attain maximum speed.

Telemark Skiing

Telemark skiing is known to be the oldest form of new sport in world. For most of the people telemark skiing is one of the most rhythmic and flowing way to move down on a snow packed mountain slopes.

Touring Skiing

Touring skiing or Ski touring, ski mountaineering, ski randonnee, and alpine touring are all the same. It is a snow sport in which a special kind of equipment is used to climb up the mountain and no ski lifts are available. The equipment used in the touring skiing includes free heel and skins. A free heel is used for fluid, or walking like movements while descending passing over horizontal slopes. Skins on the other hand are made up of Mohair or Nylon which are used to provide solid grip to the skier and avoid him/her from sliding backward. The process of descending the mountain on skins is known as skinning. Skins help the skier to climb the slopes up to 25 degrees conveniently. However, steeper slopes such as 35 degrees are climbed with a succession of traverses connected by kick-turns or conversions. The slopes with even steeper angles require having skis strapped up to a specially designed touring rucksack along with crampons.

These are some of the most common types of skiing which people enjoy in different parts of the world. Sporting on snow has always been a great experience. If you are snow sport enthusiast, it is important for you to have enough knowledge and skill before indulging yourself in a skiing that can bring injuries to you.

Harassment

Types of Harassment

Harassment is term that is defined as an offensive behavior, i.e. uninvited or unsolicited words or conducts that cause annoyance, irritation, or persecution. This offensive behavior can take any form. Any disturbing or upsetting behavior comes under the term harassment. Previously, this behavior was thought to influence only women, but over the recent few years it has been realized that this evil is not gender specific – means not related to any particular gender. However, we cannot deny the fact that women have always been harassed in one way or another by their male equivalents more than anyone else.

Harassment is of different types and forms. Given are some of the different types of harassment:

Bullying

Bullying is a form of harassment which is related to the unsolicited offensive, words or conducts and ill-disposed behavior which threaten a single person or group of people by means of repetitive offensive behavior. Bullying is a term that is associated with impulsive and insensible misuse of power or position which be seen in several different forms such as physical, verbal and non-verbal. Bullying involve viciousness that often results into patronizing, humiliating, threatening, sabotaging or disgracing the person.

Deformation of Character (DOC) Harassment

This is a type of harassment which intends to deform the character of a person by implying different means such as rumors, telling lies or through general character assassination. The purpose of doing all this is to damage or spoil sincerity, trustworthiness, and reputation of an individual in workplace, school or in society.

Disability Harassment

Disability harassment is a kind of harassment that involves the undesirable actions or conducts regarding disability, impairment or any other supplementary need. This type of harassment targets the individuals having some sort of disability. Different means are used to harass these people such as demeaning and offensive comments, inapt reference to disability, undesired or unwilling argument of the effect of disability, repulsing behavior towards working with disables or leaving the people with disabilities out from the social gatherings.

Electronic Harassment

As the name suggests, this type of harassment makes use electronic gadgets and devices to torment and bother the person(s). Electronic harassment may involve the full time supervision of a target person or persons. The means used to supervise the target may include bugs, wiretaps, tapped videos etc. There are certain other electronic devices and gadgets which are used to harass the target.

Gang Stalking

Gang stalking is a kind of harassment resembling to mobbing; however, gang stalking is a phenomenon which is done outside the workplace or school. It is a kind of sequel harassment through the classical conditioning. In this type of harassment, an individual is harmfully sensitized to any particular stimulus like color (e.g. red, yellow, white etc), sound (e.g. keys jangling), action (e.g. coughing, pen clicking, sneezing etc). The consistency is an important part of this type of harassment as it enforces a negative association to any color, action or sound in a person. It is often happened that the friends of the person are threatened to partake in these evil activities to assist the gang stalkers. Gang stalkers have a deep understanding and knowledge of the person’s behaviors and activities which are then targeted. In order to make their evil intentions work properly, gang stalkers often follow the person all the time. They always remain around the person to harass him/her to make certain that their plans work for them and the person becomes crazy, mentally suppressed and absurd.

General Harassment

It is a kind of harassment which involve behaviors, words, and actions which are normally taken as inapt and undesired. It can be anything from yelling, taunting and abusing to stares, and unwanted gestures etc that make the other person feels irritated and annoyed.

Moral Harassment

As the name suggests, this type of harassment has to do with the morals. It is defined as the recurring and protracted daily disclosure of the workers to awkward, shameful and demeaning incidents. It is something that is happened to a person while trying to carry out the assigned task. In this sort of harassment, the workers come across the characters in authority that are not known to possess moral or ethical conduct or mannerism. These authoritative figures put a display of unethical behaviors or actions which are then imitated by the workers to gain the favor or appreciation of those authoritative figures.

Racial Harassment

As the name suggests, this is a type of harassment related to the race, ethnic or national origin. Racial harassment can be either in verbal form or an offensive behavior that targets the race, ethnicity, color or culture. A person is targeted through abusive remarks regarding racial background, ridiculing, disparaging comments, racist jokes, damaging the property and so on.

Psychological Harassment

Psychological harassment is another type of harassment in which an individual is emotionally humiliated through undesired words or vexatious behaviors. The people are harassed through psychological games and torturing them mentally. A most suitable example of this type of psychological games is ‘this for that’ harassment.

Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment is one of the most common forms of harassment. For many people this sort of harassment is limited to women, but the fact is sexual harassment is common in both male and females, though the ratio is higher on the women side. This is a type of harassment where an individual is sexually harassed through different means such as physical touching, groping, or the invasion of personal space, sexual assault, rape and indecent exposure. Sexual harassment may also be verbal where undesired comments regarding sexual content such as personal attack on someone through abusive remarks, lewd or obscene jokes, denigration, evocative or certain other compromising invitations in the form of sexual favors. There are however non-verbal sexual harassments as well like sending explicit emails, gestures, leering or other evocative looks.

Sexual Orientation Harassment

Sexual orientation harassment is a harassment that involves the notorious or supposed sexual orientation. The undesired behaviors may take the form of name calling, assault, verbal abuse, offensive remarks, compromising sexual invitations, and son on.

Stalking online and off.

One of the most widely reported type of harassment is stalking and on and off. This is a type of harassment that based on bothering or nagging a person through different means such as simple writing, sending email, or through telephone. It also involves spying a person, threatening and tormenting them.

Street Harassment

Street harassment is a type of harassment which is often associated with the sexual harassment.  The difference between is only that it takes place in the public areas, especially in urban places. It is often taken as a kind of harassment of females by males. If we talk about United States, the different forms of street harassment are talking to a stranger woman and tell her to smile, making sexually offensive or lewd remarks, or touching and teasing women.

Some of the other forms of street harassment involve following or spying a woman, touching a woman while passing vulgar remarks, exposing or calling disparagingly.

Acute Angles

Types of Angles

In geometry, an angle is defined as a space between two or more lines which are joined at a common point or space between two lines or surfaces that join to form a geometrical figure. In day to day life, angles play an important role. Angles come into act when making roads, designs, buildings, furniture and so on. Engineers, architects, carpenters all make use of angles in one way or another. Even artists use angles while sketching a painting or drawing.

When two lines join at a point, it gives rise to an angle. The point of intersection of lines is known as vertex. Angles are of different types. Let us have a look at some of the different types of angles.

Acute Angles

Acute angle is an angle which is less than 90 degrees.

Right Angles

Right angle is an angle which is exactly 90 degrees in measure.

Obtuse Angles

Obtuse angle is angle who is more than 90 degrees and less than 180 degrees in measure. Any angle that measure between 90 degrees and 180 degrees will be an obtuse angle.

Straight Angles

Straight angle is an angle which is exactly 180 degrees in measure. It is pretty much similar to a straight line.

Reflex Angles

Reflex angle is an angle which is more than 180 degrees and less than 360 degrees in measure. All the angles that measure between 180 and 360 degrees are reflex angles.

Adjacent Angles

Any angle that has a common vertex and a common side or edge usually forms two adjacent angles.

Complementary Angles

Complementary angles are the angles where the measure of two angles gives you 90 degrees. It is important to note here that if two adjacent angles measure 90 degrees then they must be complementary angles rather than adjacent angles.

Supplementary Angles

When the measure of two angles gives you 180 degrees then these are supplementary angles.

Vertical Angles

Vertical angles are the angles with common vertex and having the sides formed from same lines. The given angles are vertical angles.

Similarly, if two parallel lines are crisscrossed by third line or transversal, you will have 8 angles formed in that case. Look at the given picture:

From these eight angles, four angles are interior angles and four are exterior angles.

Alternate Interior Angles

The angles which are formed between the two parallel lines because of transversal are interior angles.

Alternate Exterior Angles

The angles which are formed on the outer side of the parallel lines along the transversal are called exterior angles.

Corresponding Angles

Corresponding angles are the angles which are formed in similar positions.